Renewable power

Tracking Clean Energy Progress

🕐 Last updated Wednesday, 23 May 2018

More efforts needed

In 2017, renewable electricity generation grew 6% and reached a quarter of global power output, thanks to the continued growth of solar PV and wind technologies. Despite these positive trends (especially with PV), renewable power as a whole needs more improvement to meet SDS targets. Net annual capacity additions for all renewables must increase over 2017-30, while the share of renewables in global electricity generation must reach 47% by 2030, from 25% in 2017.


Share of renewables in power generation

To meet SDS targets, the share of renewables must reach 47% by 2030.

	Low carbon 	Renewables
2000	35.3	18.5
2001	35.0	18.1
2002	34.4	18.0
2003	33.3	17.6
2004	33.6	18.0
2005	33.3	18.2
2006	33.0	18.3
2007	31.8	18.1
2008	32.2	18.7
2009	32.9	19.5
2010	32.6	19.8
2011	31.8	20.2
2012	32.0	21.2
2013	32.6	22.0
2014	33.3	22.7
2015	33.7	23.1
2016	34.9	24.3
2025	50.3	37.6
2030	62.9	47.2
2035	75.7	56.2
2040	82.8	61.8
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In 2017, renewables saw the highest rate of generation growth among all energy sources. Wind power accounted for the largest share of overall renewables growth, at 36% - also thanks to a relatively windy year, followed by solar PV (27%), hydropower (22%) and bioenergy (12%).

Renewable power overall needs to increase its annual growth rate from 6% to 6.5% to meet the IEA Sustainable Development Scenario targets by 2030. This requires faster deployment of all renewable technologies including hydropower, which still represents two-thirds of global renewable generation today.

Solar PV is the only renewable technology on track to meet SDS targets with record-level new deployment in 2017, thanks to continuous policy support and cost reductions. Grid-connected onshore wind capacity additions declined for the second year in row last year; consequently onshore wind lost its “on-track” status, as SDS targets require a continuous growth in new build capacity.


Renewable generation by technology

Historical and targets

	Ocean	CSP	Geothermal	Bioenergy	Solar PV	Offshore wind	Onshore wind	Hydropower
2000	0.546	0.526	51.98934	132.2011	0.979692	0.114542	31.23444	2699.993
2001	0.524	0.565	51.57394	132.6842	1.24401	0.193162	38.22241	2641.598
2002	0.533	0.569	52.29396	146.0276	1.605249	0.360165	52.45037	2711.412
2003	0.53	0.548656	54.09058	157.0191	2.060998	1.302572	62.88915	2726.151
2004	0.508	0.587081	56.50331	172.3093	2.750592	1.928948	82.45682	2896.784
2005	0.516	0.596528	58.28453	192.9179	3.97418	2.406916	101.4763	3019.033
2006	0.49	0.554597	59.6115	206.979	5.573659	2.907392	130.1101	3128.598
2007	0.495	0.684684	62.29425	226.5944	7.483642	3.856128	166.9448	3167.133
2008	0.487	0.898314	64.91521	245.1065	11.91607	4.999059	216.0227	3290.473
2009	0.486	0.922769	67.03817	266.8805	20.09145	4.993894	272.4174	3341.485
2010	0.513	1.689603	68.11999	322.471	32.38969	7.731891	333.601	3531.133
2011	0.511	2.986407	69.22786	341.2177	63.42934	11.77503	423.7751	3600.124
2012	0.496	4.908005	70.20511	370.8121	99.19163	14.82129	509.0054	3758.024
2013	0.927	6.248507	71.62312	406.1779	140.3959	20.84657	624.8819	3888.967
2014	0.999	8.88314	77.38463	445.2008	190.1175	25.14013	692.6491	3994.666
2015	1.006	10.22392	80.44563	472.7326	246.5564	38.98993	799.0379	3978.001
2016	1.017173	13.30545	83.58532	500.2016	312.2587391	41.86629	915.8904	4143.88
2017	1.087592	15.62846	87.66306	550.9116	416.2587391	51.38872	1044.928	4226.88
2018	1.112022	18.14929	91.59851	584.8124	561.6846078	62.66337	1158.494	4346.048
2019	1.156612	21.00135	96.38501	618.5176	688.3802642	76.33361	1275.545	4435.419
2020	1.199213	24.22051	101.1312	651.8261	821.3339557	92.43994	1396.229	4498.869
2021	1.248958	28.29023	105.4603	683.1503	958.7215967	108.9667	1528.752	4554.865
2022	1.335705486	31.95059102	109.8431216	713.3196288	1098.621794	128.6340728	1653.687314	4608.398975
2025	4.78501182	99.138961	169.9901159	871.7176203	1628.620507	274.1494155	2510.666905	5105.565026
2030	16.62621928	286.580279	291.6784866	1109.242458	2732.27732	548.5579267	3644.005981	5848.398857
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Recent trends in renewable power

The vast majority of new renewable power capacity was spurred by administratively set feed-in tariffs or premiums, with most notable examples in China and Japan.

At the same time, competitive auctions are emerging as an effective instrument to foster new renewable capacities in an increasing number of countries. Auctions have been raising the interest of policy-makers, as they combine competitive pricing with volume control and support cost-effective deployment of renewables. In 2017, almost 24 GW of new renewable capacity was awarded in auctions in 20 countries, with solar and wind technologies representing over 95% of it.

Renewable energy auction prices continued to decline for solar PV and onshore wind, and ranged from 20 to 50 USD/MWh in Argentina, India, Chile, Mexico and Turkey.

Record low prices were also achieved for offshore wind (55-80 USD/MWh) and CSP (73 USD/MWh in the United Arab Emirates) for projects to be commissioned over 2019-25. In Germany’s first offshore wind auction, three projects (totaling 1.4 GW) bid at zero for the first time, meaning that if they are commissioned their electricity will be sold at the wholesale price starting from 2024/25.

Investment

Investment in renewable projects that came online in 2017 decreased by nearly 7%, though remained high by historical standards at around USD 300 billion, while new installed global capacities slightly increased compared to 2016.

Solar PV investment rose to record levels, even with falling specific system costs per watt installed. Offshore wind investment also rose to record levels, with the commissioning of 4 GW of new plants, mostly in Europe.

Onshore wind investment fell by nearly 15%, though part of the decline stemmed from falling technology costs.

Investment associated with the hydropower coming online in 2017 fell by 30% to its lowest level in over a decade, with a slowdown in China, Brazil and in Southeast Asia. However, final investment decisions for hydropower rebounded in 2017 to over 35 GW. This rebound may boost future investment, although it is not enough to put hydropower on track to meet long-term goals, as described below.


Are renewable technologies on track?

While solar PV was a bright spot in 2017, surpassing the growth rate envisioned in the SDS, onshore wind began to fall behind and was reclassified as "more efforts needed," putting it in the same category as offshore wind, hydropower and bioenergy power generation. Concentrating solar power, geothermal and ocean power remain well below the growth rates necessary to meet clean energy goals.


Solar PV

Solar PV showed record 34% growth in power generation in 2017 and is well on track to meet its SDS target, which requires average annual growth of 17% between 2017 and 2030.

Read more about solar PV
	Historical	Forecast	SDS Targets
2000	0.979692		
2001	1.24401		
2002	1.605249		
2003	2.060998		
2004	2.750592		
2005	3.97418		
2006	5.573659		
2007	7.483642		
2008	11.91607		
2009	20.09145		
2010	32.38969		
2011	63.42934		
2012	99.19163		
2013	140.3959		
2014	190.1175		
2015	246.5564		
2016	312.2587391		
2017	416.2587391		
2018		561.6846078	
2019		688.3802642	
2020		821.3339557	
2021		958.7215967	
2022		1098.621794	
2025			1628.620507
2030			2732.27732
      
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Onshore wind

Onshore wind capacity additions declined by 10% in 2017, marking the second year of decline in a row. This trend is in contrast with SDS generation targets requiring a continuous growth in new build capacity to maintain annual generation growth of 12% through 2030. As a result, onshore wind lost its “on-track” status this year and needs improvement.

Read more about onshore wind
	Historical	Forecast	SDS Targets
2000	31.23444		
2001	38.22241		
2002	52.45037		
2003	62.88915		
2004	82.45682		
2005	101.4763		
2006	130.1101		
2007	166.9448		
2008	216.0227		
2009	272.4174		
2010	333.601		
2011	423.7751		
2012	509.0054		
2013	624.8819		
2014	692.6491		
2015	799.0379		
2016	915.8904		
2017	1044.928		
2018		1158.494	
2019		1275.545	
2020		1396.229	
2021		1528.752	
2022		1653.687314	
2025			2510.66
2030			3644
      
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Offshore wind

Offshore wind showed strong signs of progress with 23% generation growth in 2017, but it needs to accelerate even faster to be in line with SDS target.

Read more about offshore wind
	Historical	Forecast	SDS Targets
2000	0.114542		
2001	0.193162		
2002	0.360165		
2003	1.302572		
2004	1.928948		
2005	2.406916		
2006	2.907392		
2007	3.856128		
2008	4.999059		
2009	4.993894		
2010	7.731891		
2011	11.77503		
2012	14.82129		
2013	20.84657		
2014	25.14013		
2015	38.98993		
2016	41.86629		
2017	51.38872		
2018		62.66337	
2019		76.33361	
2020		92.43994	
2021		108.9667	
2022		128.6340728	
2025			274.1494155
2030			548.5579267
      
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Hydropower

Hydropower generation increased by an estimated 2% in 2017. However, capacity growth declined for a fourth consecutive year since 2013. To reach its SDS target, hydropower generation would need to grow by almost 40% in order to reach more than 5800 TWh by 2030.

Read more about hydropower
	Historical	Forecast	SDS Targets
2000	2699.993		
2001	2641.598		
2002	2711.412		
2003	2726.151		
2004	2896.784		
2005	3019.033		
2006	3128.598		
2007	3167.133		
2008	3290.473		
2009	3341.485		
2010	3531.133		
2011	3600.124		
2012	3758.024		
2013	3888.967		
2014	3994.666		
2015	3978.001		
2016	4143.88		
2017	4226.88		
2018		4346.048	
2019		4435.419	
2020		4498.869	
2021		4554.865	
2022		4608.398975	
2025			5105.565026
2030			5848.398857
      
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Bioenergy

In 2017, bioenergy power generation increased 10%. However, growth was lower than in previous years, and bioenergy power generation is forecast to increase by only 6% per year over the next five years. As a consequence, bioenergy needs improvement to reach its SDS electricity generation target of more than 1100 TWh by 2030.

Read more about bioenergy
	Historical	Forecast	SDS Targets
2000	132.2011		
2001	132.6842		
2002	146.0276		
2003	157.0191		
2004	172.3093		
2005	192.9179		
2006	206.979		
2007	226.5944		
2008	245.1065		
2009	266.8805		
2010	322.471		
2011	341.2177		
2012	370.8121		
2013	406.1779		
2014	445.2008		
2015	472.7326		
2016	500.2016		
2017	550.9116		
2018		584.8124	
2019		618.5176	
2020		651.8261	
2021		683.1503	
2022		713.3196288	
2025			871.7176203
2030			1109.242458
      
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Concentrating solar power (CSP)

In 2017, concentrating solar power (CSP) capacity grew by just 120 MW. Future CSP growth is forecast to come mostly from emerging economies, though deployments have been slow and are not on track to meet the SDS goals.

Read more about CSP, geothermal and ocean power
	Historical	Forecast	SDS Targets
2000	0.526		
2001	0.565		
2002	0.569		
2003	0.548656		
2004	0.587081		
2005	0.596528		
2006	0.554597		
2007	0.684684		
2008	0.898314		
2009	0.922769		
2010	1.689603		
2011	2.986407		
2012	4.908005		
2013	6.248507		
2014	8.88314		
2015	10.22392		
2016	13.30545		
2017	15.62846		
2018		18.14929	
2019		21.00135	
2020		24.22051	
2021		28.29023	
2022		31.95059102	
2025			99.138961
2030			286.580279

      
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Geothermal

Pre-development risks for geothermal power remain high and drilling costs have been increasing over the last decade, leading to higher investment costs in some countries. As a result, geothermal capacity is not growing fast enough to meet the SDS targets.

Read more about CSP, geothermal and ocean power
	Historical	Forecast	SDS Targets
2000	51.98934		
2001	51.57394		
2002	52.29396		
2003	54.09058		
2004	56.50331		
2005	58.28453		
2006	59.6115		
2007	62.29425		
2008	64.91521		
2009	67.03817		
2010	68.11999		
2011	69.22786		
2012	70.20511		
2013	71.62312		
2014	77.38463		
2015	80.44563		
2016	83.58532		
2017	87.66306		
2018		91.59851	
2019		96.38501	
2020		101.1312	
2021		105.4603	
2022		109.8431216	
2025			169.99
2030			291.68
      
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Ocean power

Ocean technology holds a great potential but requires additional policy support for faster cost reductions with the commissioning of larger commercial plants. It is currently not on track to meet the SDS goals.

Read more about CSP, geothermal and ocean power
	Historical	Forecast	SDS Targets
2000	0.546		
2001	0.524		
2002	0.533		
2003	0.53		
2004	0.508		
2005	0.516		
2006	0.49		
2007	0.495		
2008	0.487		
2009	0.486		
2010	0.513		
2011	0.511		
2012	0.496		
2013	0.927		
2014	0.999		
2015	1.006		
2016	1.017173		
2017	1.087592		
2018		1.112022	
2019		1.156612	
2020		1.199213	
2021		1.248958	
2022		1.335705486	
2025			4.78501182
2030			16.62621928
      
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Innovation

Innovation in renewable energy technologies has continued, especially for wind and solar power.

In 2017, several wind turbine manufacturers introduced low-speed onshore turbines with lower specific capacities (W/m2) that have larger rotor diameters, ranging from 130m to 160m. In addition, investment in digitalisation has emerged as an important trend for the wind industry. Digitalisation aims not only to optimise operation and maintenance, further reducing generation costs, but also to make turbines more system-friendly.

In 2017, the largest offshore wind turbine, with a rated capacity of 9.5 MW and a rotor diameter of 164m, started commercial operation in the United Kingdom. The average name-plate capacities of new turbines are expected to increase from over 4 MW in 2016 to over 8 MW in the next five years, reducing installation and maintenance costs thus resulting in lower generation costs.

Innovation in solar power is led by increases in the average efficiency of commercial PV modules. In 2016, this further improved, and now ranges from 16% to over 20% depending on the module type. This trend is expected to continue, as extensive research and development activities aim to harvest a broader range of the sun’s energy spectrum, e.g. through multi-layer cells.

Innovation in the design of concentrating solar power plants is expected to allow storage capabilities to increase. Projects with 10 or more hours of storage – mostly towers utilising molten salt storage – are expected to become the norm, leading to generation cost reductions of up to 50%.


The IEA’s new Innovation Tracking Framework identifies key long-term “technology innovation gaps” across the energy mix that need to be filled in order to meet long-term clean energy transition goals. Each innovation gap highlights where R&D investment and other efforts need improvement.

Explore the technology innovation gaps identified for renewables below:

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Continued module efficiency improvements needed to reach SDS targets.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Improved cleaning, passivated contacts, interconnection, embedding. New metallization pastes. Overall, a pressing need to identify a path to market to a number of innovation designs at the lab bench.

Key initiatives

  • Relatively well-funded R&D area but gap between this challenge and reaching beyond 24%. While well observed, there is a need to develop commercial designs and products.
  • Longi Solar/CPVT-verified 23% PERC cell and PV Celltech challenge.
  • PERC category in OECD statistics shows highest area of innovation within variable renewables.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Penetration in SDS imposes pressure on PV industry to develop more sustainable processes. Cadmium, lead and chromium create high levels of toxic waste that needs to be mitigated, monitored, regulated and disposed of.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Process technology scale up needed overall. Increased regulatory pressure, including overall awareness and obligations could lead to innovation in this space.

Key initiatives

  • 45 million in R&D accounted for.
  • Few initiatives and products overall, few countries impose recycling or heavy metal use restrictions.
  • Toshiba, PV Techno Cycle (Japan) programme has a goal of recycling 80% of materials in panels.
  • Few countries impose recycling or heavy metal use restrictions. The European Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE) sets up rules and targets for EU member states but requires conversion into national law.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Often-quoted limits to current generation which would need to be breached to reach SDS penetration.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Improved module optics, improved metallisation, POCL2 high-efficiency emitters, capturing long-wavelength photon energy. Need to develop further accelerators/incubators to facilitate testing and deployment of more exotic technologies in the pipeline if targets are to reach beyond current generation of crystalline PV.

Key initiatives

  • DoE initiatives reaching 40.7% in 2016, ARPA‐E MOSAIC program reaching 44.5% in 2017 from multi-junction gallium-antimonium cell.
  • US National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) programmes on Low Cost III-V Solar Cells and Hybrid Tandem solar cells.
  • Longi Solar/CPVT-verified 23% PERC cell.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Emissions required to create a thin-film cell and panel are lower than mono- or polycrystalline panels, and have reduced soft/labour costs, which in deep penetrations of PV in the SDS become a crucial barrier for further deployment. However current efficiencies are relatively too low to incentivise scale-up.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Overall efficiency improvements; low light device performance. Key technical parameters for focused R&D included surface passivation, buffer, and transparent contact layers.

Key initiatives

Solar Frontier, Sharp, SoloPower and First solar are leading manufacturers.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

As turbine costs drop in the SDS, interconnection and balance-of-system take up a higher share of overall installation costs. Learning on design concepts as well as fundamental technology improvements to power engineering equipment will be necessary.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

DC infrastructure; high voltage interconnections, array interconnection, streamlined cable layouts.

Key initiatives

US DoE FOAs for offshore wind have components of grid integration innovation.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Soft costs for offshore wind take up a substantial share of total installed costs, and together with interconnection they are a key challenge for reaching SDS cost goals.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Pre-commissioning of onshore wind turbines, concepts for integrating structure components.

Key initiatives

A number of simulation projects in place aside from commercial opportunities, including the Far and Large Offshore Wind Programme at ECN in the Netherlands. The European Wind Energy Technology Platform, as well as the Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Task Force both have initiatives in place to accelerate installation processes. The UK Offshore Wind Catapult is a leading example of tools to accelerate deployment.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

High throughput manufacturing and standardised designs of floating structures could lower costs in the mid- to long-term. Around a third of the long-term economic potential in the SDS is at depths higher than 50m.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Overall testing of floating designs. The variety of designs at the moment precludes recommendation of specific research areas.

Key initiatives

  • Floating Hywind wind farm in Scotland, 30 MW in place.
  • Macquarie/Ideol's first floating wind farm in Japan.
  • Floating wind foundations included in USD offshore wind R&D consortium (USD 18.5 million).
  • Glosten tension-leg platform and Principle Power semi-submersible concepts.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Large rotor diameters and higher hub heights have higher upfront and per unit power costs but increase production and decrease costs per unit energy while making better use of the resource and decreasing variability of output.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Fundamental improvements to turbine blade design and manufacturing, as well as materials and construction.

Key initiatives

  • UK Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult provides a platform for testing, grid emulation and KTT.
  • GE's Haliade-X programme aims to develop 12 MW turbines by 2023.
  • US Wind Energy Technology Office/EERE allocating 18.5 million to overall cost reductions of offshore wind.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Wind farm planning, both onshore and offshore, will require enhanced sensitivity assessment of the surrounding environment to ensure long term turbine efficiency and attractive return on investment.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

  • Improve the accuracy of offshore pre-construction planning to accommodate seasonal and yearly variations/changes in the wind resource.
  • Refinement and validation of model outputs against measured data.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Wind farms need to ensure their value to the system is maintained with the high penetration levels in the SDS.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Enhance short-term forecasts to facilitate the integration of higher volumes. Innovate big-data analytics from plant-level measurements, including neural network/AI controls. Component 3D printing and hybrid materials for wind towers potentially highly disruptive.

Key initiatives

  • Nearly 600m USD total funding globally for wind turbine technology improvements.
  • Initiatives on blade segmentation and turbine erection.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Hydropower sees a two-fold growth in the SDS, but its potential is highly constrained by geography and robust planning.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Designing, testing, and validating new ways to improve sustainability and reduce the environmental effects of hydropower generation on fish populations and ecosystems.

Key initiatives

Future hydropower Program from Statkraft covers energy management, sustainability and pre engineering/engineering phases.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

In the SDS, hydropower will be increasingly called upon to provide flexibility to accommodate changes in both supply and demand.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Quantify the value of services that support the resilience of the electric grid.

Key initiatives

Canadian Emerging Hydropower Technology Strategy; Asset Management improvement at ORNL.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Drilling costs account for between 40 and 70% of total capital costs of a geothermal power project. It is also a very time consuming part of the project.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Continued focus on specific technologies for different settings. Electro Impulse Technology (EIT), thermal shock drilling systems and Laser Jet drilling.

Key initiatives

  • Technical university Bergakademie Freiberg is carrying out leading research on EIT. Strong research in universities across Germany, and the University of Tokyo together with Tohuku University among other organizations.
  • Although geothermal has a significant global technical potential it receives a minimal amount of investment among clean technologies, with funding mainly provided by public research programmes.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

It is often not easy to locate and characterise geothermal resources, and this phase is both difficult and costly. The success rate (i.e. producing usable quantities of steam and/or hot water) for the first few drills can be around 60%.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Further development of electromagnetic or seismic imaging methods.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

A key driver of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology is to create permeability in a place where there is hot rock, meaning the number of possible locations (compared to hydrothermal processes) is far greater. Flow is directly related to the permeability in the reservoir.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Flow rate needs to be increased by at least a factor of three. There are two options: to either develop methods to enhance reservoir permeability or further develop techniques to create multi-horizon wells.

Key initiatives

    Low number of initiatives in this area. US potential assessments (USGS, NREL), and several country-wide technical potential assessments including EU-wide studies.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Underwater conditions are complex and varying. Few prototype turbines have been tested in field hydrodynamic environments (i.e. outside the lab). Turbulence, wave activity, and depth variations result in unsteady blade loading causing fatigue. Research in mechanical fatigue is very much needed as this has caused a number of projects to fail. This includes interactions between the fluid and the structure of the turbine: blades, tower, foundation, wake formation, array interactions etc.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

The effects of turbulence on blades must be further investigated to be able and develop commercially viable turbines. Technically speaking, this means improved characterisation of hydrodynamic blade loads and materials research.

Key initiatives

Edinburgh, Strathclyde, Manchester and Oxford universities are all carrying leading projects. Technologies currently with the largest commercial deployment are OpenHydro, Andritz Hammerfest / Atlantis Resources, Nova Innovation, Tocardo. Other commercial sources include EDF; classification societies such as DNV GL; or test facilities like EMEC.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Power take off (PTO) is a fundamental part of the energy converter, it is here the absorbed energy from the initial converter is transformed to electricity, with a resulting impact on the efficiency of the device and the design of the wave energy converter. The PTO covers a significant part of the Wave Energy Converter's (WEC) capital cost and is also the most complex part, often the first point of failure. Increasing its reliability would have an impact on operational costs and consequently on the levelised cost of electricity from wave power.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Due to the relatively low level of maturity of wave energy a range of different areas need to be in focus to find the optimal solution. Projects should look at efficiency, design such as flexibility and robustness, different combinations of initial converter and PTO. Some projects are currently taking inspiration from wind energy technologies and also technologies used in the automotive sector.

Key initiatives

Wave Energy Scotland (WES) is currently funding five different projects. The Australian company Carnegie Clean Energy is carrying out several R&D projects. Australia Research Council (ARC) project awarded to BioPower systems.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Advanced control systems for wave energy converters and sub-systems is essential for the development of economically feasible technology as it is essential to improve performance, affordability, survivability and reliability.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

General deployment and tracking of the full range of control systems and algorithms.

Key initiatives

Wave Energy Scotland currently funding 13 projects from different universities and companies.

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