The Global Tracking Framework, a multi-agency effort led by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the World Bank, calculates the starting point against which the SE4ALL initiative can benchmark progress towards its three objectives of achieving universal access to modern energy services, doubling the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency and doubling the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix (all by 2030).
The Global Tracking Framework estimates that, as of 2010, 17% of the global population did not have access to electricity while 41% still relied on wood or other biomass to cook and heat their homes. Renewable energy accounted for 18% of the global energy mix in 2010, while global energy efficiency had improved by 1.3% per year on average since 1990.
Global action is required, but the nature of the challenge differs across countries and, for each of the SE4ALL goals, the report identifies 20 “high-impact” countries that are crucial to making major progress. The report also finds that achievement of the SE4ALL goals requires energy investments to increase by at least USD 600 billion per year until 2030, compared with the level currently expected. But the costs are not spread evenly, with universal access to modern cooking needing an additional USD 4.4 billion per year and electricity access needing USD 45 billion per year, while renewables need an additional USD 174 billion per year and energy efficiency USD 394 billion per year. This investment must be accompanied by a comprehensive package of policy measures, including fiscal, financial and economic incentives, phasing out fossil-fuel subsidies, and pricing of carbon.