With an estimated 175 million inhabitants, Brazil has the largest population in Latin America and the fifth largest in the world. Its economy is the largest in Latin America. The country is Latin America’s largest energy consumer, and its primary energy mix is dominated by oil, hydropower and other renewable energies, especially biomass. This chapter analyses the outlook for Brazil’s energy sector to 2030. Macroeconomic and policy assumptions underlying the projections have been described and discussed. One section reviews the recent trends in energy demand and supply and structural changes in the sector. Projections of overall energy demand and supply are be presented, together with an assessment of the implications of these projections for Brazil’s position in Latin American energy supply, investment needs and the environment. The work has benefited from input from Petrobras, the University of Sao Paulo, Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica and Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica.