Type: Country Review (Book)
Release Date: 2011
Nearly one-third of global energy and one-quarter of worldwide carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are attributable to industrial activities that are not in the power generation sector. If climate change is to be successfully tackled, these sectors will need to transform the way they use energy and significantly reduce their CO2 emissions. In sectors such as iron and steel, oil refining, cement and chemicals and petrochemicals, emission can be reduced through efficiency improvements and integration of low carbon energy sources. Crucially, however, carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been identified as the only large-scale mitigation option available that can deliver the additional CO2 emissions reductions that would be necessary to meet the climate goals in 2050.
This roadmap shows that CCS is a key cost-effective option for reducing CO2 emissions in large energy-intensive industries. In fact, much of the promising short-term potential for CCS globally lies not in the power sector but in industrial activities that currently vent highly pure streams of CO2. These activities include hydrogen production for fertilisers or fuel, bioethanol production and natural gas sweetening. Most studies on the potential application of CCS have focused on the power sector, however, even though all existing operational large-scale demonstrations of CCS are in industrial applications. In the longer-term, half of the global economic deployment for CCS by 2050 is shown to be in industrial applications. In certain sectors CCS is shown to be of particular relevance in developing countries, where it could be a highly cost-competitive emissions abatement option, even in the near term.
This technology roadmap builds on the initial IEA roadmap on CCS and also the technology roadmap for the cement sector developed by the IEA and the Cement Sustainability Initiative of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development. It paves the way for low-carbon industrial growth in developed and developing countries by providing a vision of CCS in industrial applications up to 2050.
Publications and Papers:
The development of this roadmap would not have been possible without financial support from the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy and the Global CCS Institute. We want to thank those organisations for their support and guidance. The IEA and UNIDO also thank MASDAR, Shell and Petrobras who hosted stakeholder workshops in Abu Dhabi, Amsterdam and Rio de Janeiro, respectively; and the United Kingdom Department of Energy and Climate Change for sponsoring the Rio de Janeiro workshop.
The IEA and UNIDO would also like to thank the industry, governments and non-governments experts who attended meetings, reviewed and commented on drafts and provided guidance.
The Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications roadmap is IEA and UNIDO interpretation of the workshops, with additional information incorporated to provide a more complete picture, and does not necessarily fully represent the view of the workshop participants or the funders.