Imports and Exports
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

European Commission - Eurostat
Imports and exports comprise amounts having crossed the national territorial boundaries of the country whether or not customs clearance has taken place.

For coal: Imports and exports comprise the amount of fuels obtained from or supplied to other countries, whether or not there is an economic or customs union between the relevant countries. Coal in transit should not be included.

For oil and gas: Quantities of crude oil and oil products imported and exported under processing agreements (i.e. refining on account) are included. Quantities of oil in transit are excluded. Crude oil, NGL, and natural gas are reported as coming from the country of ultimate origin; refinery feedstocks and oil products are reported as coming from the country of last consignment. Re-exports of oil imported for processing within bonded areas are shown as an export of product from the processing country to the final destination. For gas, imports of liquefied natural gas should cover the total dry marketable equivalent, including amounts used as own consumption in the regasification process.

For electricity: Amounts are considered as imported or exported when they have crossed the national boundaries of the country. If electricity is “wheeled” or transited through a country, the amount is shown as both import and export.

International Energy Agency (IEA)
Imports and exports comprise amounts having crossed the national territorial boundaries of the country whether or not customs clearance has taken place.

For coal: Imports and exports comprise the amount of fuels obtained from or supplied to other countries, whether or not there is an economic or customs union between the relevant countries. Coal in transit should not be included.

For oil and gas: Quantities of crude oil and oil products imported and exported under processing agreements (i.e. refining on account) are included. Quantities of oil in transit are excluded. Crude oil, NGL, and natural gas are reported as coming from the country of ultimate origin; refinery feedstocks and oil products are reported as coming from the country of last consignment. Re-exports of oil imported for processing within bonded areas are shown as an export of product from the processing country to the final destination. For gas, imports of liquefied natural gas should cover the total dry marketable equivalent, including amounts used as own consumption in the regasification process.

For electricity: Amounts are considered as imported or exported when they have crossed the national boundaries of the country. If electricity is “wheeled” or transited through a country, the amount is shown as both import and export.

International Energy Forum Secretariat (IEFS)
The trading of oil (both crude oil and oil products) raises a number of issues for reporting statistics of imports and exports.
- the concept of national territory
- the notion of customs clearance
- transit trade
- international marine and aviation bunkers

Both imports and exports should reflect amounts of oil having crossed the national territorial boundaries. It is therefore essential that there is a clear definition of what the statistical national boundary of the country is: E.g. - are some distant territories to be
included in the statistical trade reporting or not?

Trade figures should report physical flows of oil and oil products. To that extent, customs clearance which sometimes is delivered long after the goods have crossed the national frontier should not be taken as the point of registering the import.

The trade figures however, are often derived from customs statistics, which take the customs clearance as the indicator for import or export. In the absence of other trade reporting systems customs statistics should be used.

Imports of crude oil and petroleum products, in order to be consistent with major economic indicators, should be, at least partly for domestic use. This implies that quantities passing through a country “in transit” should not be included in the import and export figures. Please note that if crude oil is imported to be refined in the country, and the products resulting from this process are exported (processing agreement), this is not considered as transit trade. Therefore, the quantities of crude oil imported for this
purpose should be reported as an import and the resulting products which will be sold to another country should be reported as an export.

Deliveries of oil to ships for consumption during international voyages (international marine bunkers) or aviation fuels delivered for international flights (international
aviation bunkers) should not be included in the export figures. International bunkers are fuels which are delivered to vessels or aircraft, irrespective of the country of registration, which are undertaking international voyages. The oil delivered as bunkers is to be used as fuel by the ship or aircraft and not as part of the cargo.

Although the fuels delivered for these purposes will be leaving the national boundaries of the country, they should not be reported as exports. For the purpose of the JODI
questionnaire, the international marine and aviation bunkers are to be included in the demand figures. The reason for this is that in the JODI questionnaire, we try to monitor the total demand for oil including refinery fuel and bunkers (see below, under Section on Demand).

Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Imports and Exports. Imports and exports comprise amounts having crossed the national territorial boundaries of the country whether or not customs clearance has taken place.

- Oil and Gas: Quantities of crude oil and oil products imported or exported under processing agreements (i.e. refining on account) are included. Quantities of oil in transit are excluded. Crude oil, NGL and natural gas are reported as coming from the country of origin; refinery feedstocks and oil products are reported as coming from the country of last consignment.

Re-exports of oil imported for processing within bonded areas are shown as an export of product from the processing country to the final destination.

- Solid Fuels: Imports and exports comprise the amount of fuels obtained from or supplied to other countries, whether or not there is an economic or customs union between the relevant countries. Solid fuels in transit should not be included.

- Electricity: Amounts are considered as imported or exported when they have crossed the national territorial boundaries of the country.

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)
Imports and exports comprise amounts having crossed the national territorial boundaries of the country whether or not customs clearance has taken place.

For coal: Imports and exports comprise the amount of fuels obtained from or supplied to other countries, whether or not there is an economic or customs union between the relevant countries. Coal in transit should not be included.

For oil and gas: Quantities of crude oil and oil products imported and exported under processing agreements (i.e. refining on account) are included. Quantities of oil in transit are excluded. Crude oil, NGL, and natural gas are reported as coming from the country of ultimate origin; refinery feedstocks and oil products are reported as coming from the country of last consignment. Re-exports of oil imported for processing within bonded areas are shown as an export of product from the processing country to the final destination. For gas, imports of liquefied natural gas should cover the total dry marketable equivalent, including amounts used as own consumption in the regasification process.

For electricity: Amounts are considered as imported or exported when they have crossed the national boundaries of the country. If electricity is “wheeled” or transited through a country, the amount is shown as both import and export.

UNSD Energy Statistics Section
Imports and Exports refer to the amount of primary and derived energy obtained from, or supplied to, other countries. Imports and Exports of crude petroleum also include imports and exports of feedstocks, unrefined and semi-refined oils and components derived from crude petroleum. Fuels used in transit are excluded from imports and exports and are included under bunkers.