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ETP 2016 data visualisation

How will the overall energy system evolve from now to 2050?

This three-part interactive visualisation relies on the data and figures behind Energy Technology Perspectives 2016, the IEA’s flagship publication on energy technologies. The infographics illustrate how the overall energy system will evolve from now to 2050:

The Emissions Reduction visualisation allows you to quickly and easily see what impact countries, technologies and sectors may have on carbon dioxide emissions in the decades to come.

The Energy Flows visualisation focuses on the transport, industry and buildings sectors, highlighting the different fuels (from oil to biofuels), sectors (from petrochemicals to residential) and end uses (from water heating to lighting) that will be affected in the years ahead according to the 2DS.

The Transport visualisation lets you compare selected indicators – from annual roadway travel to roadway length – across countries and regions.

Notes on emissions reductions

  • Total emissions include industry process emissions
  • Transport emissions include 50% of the emissions from international shipping and aviation that arrives or departs from each country or region.
  • End-use energy efficiency also includes avoided transport demand (e.g. through remote communication).
  • Reductions from electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles are split into an energy efficiency improvement component and a fuel switching component.
  • All three visualisations use the latest data from ETP 2016.



- The 2°C Scenario (2DS) is the main focus of Energy Technology Perspectives. The 2DS lays out an energy system deployment pathway and an emissions trajectory consistent with at least a 50% chance of limiting the average global temperature increase to 2°C. The  2DS limits the total remaining cumulative energy-related CO2 emissions between 2015 and 2100 to 1 000 GtCO2. The  2DS reduces CO2 emissions (including emissions from fuel combustion and process and feedstock emissions in industry) by almost 60% by 2050 (compared with 2013), with carbon emissions being projected to decline after 2050 until carbon neutrality is reached.

- The 4°C Scenario (4DS) takes into account recent pledges by countries to limit emissions and improve energy efficiency, which help limit the long-term temperature increase to 4°C. In many respects the 4DS is already an ambitious scenario, requiring significant changes in policy and technologies. Moreover, capping the long-term temperature increase at 4°C requires significant additional cuts in emissions in the period after 2050.

- The 6°C Scenario (6DS) is largely an extension of current trends. Primary energy demand and CO2 emissions would grow by about 60% from 2013 to 2050, with about 1 700 GtCO2 of cumulative emissions. In the absence of efforts to stabilise the atmospheric concentration of GHGs, the average global temperature rise above pre-industrial levels is projected to reach almost 5.5°C in the long term and almost 4°C by the end of this century.