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ETP 2012 data visualisation

How will the overall energy system evolve from now to 2050?

The IEA releases interactive data and figures to highlight potential scenarios

This three-part interactive visualisation relies on the data and figures behind Energy Technology Perspectives 2014, the IEA’s flagship publication on energy technologies.

The infographics illustrate how the overall energy system will evolve from now to 2050.

-    The Emissions Reduction visualisation allows you to quickly and easily see what impact countries, technologies and sectors may have on carbon dioxide emissions in the decades to come.

-    The Energy Flows visualisation focuses on the transport, industry and buildings sectors, highlighting the different fuels (from oil to biofuels), sectors (from petrochemicals to residential) and end uses (from water heating to lighting) that will be affected in the years ahead according to the 2DS.

-    The transport visualisation lets you compare selected indicators – from annual roadway travel to roadway length – across countries and regions.

Notes on emissions reductions

  • Total emissions include industry process emissions 
  • Transport emissions include 50% of the emissions from international shipping and aviation that arrives or departs from each country or region. 
  • End-use energy efficiency also includes avoided transport demand (e.g. through remote communication)
  • Reductions from electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles are split into an energy efficiency improvement component and a fuel switching component

All three visualisations use the latest data from ETP 2014.


The 6°C Scenario (6DS) is largely an extension of current trends. By 2050, energy use grows by more than two-thirds (compared with 2011) and total GHG emissions rise even more. In the absence of efforts to stabilise atmospheric concentrations of GHGs, average global temperature rise is projected to be at least 6°C in the long term.

The 4°C Scenario (4DS)  takes into account recent pledges made by countries to limit emissions and step up efforts to improve energy efficiency. It serves as the primary benchmark in ETP 2014 when comparisons are made among scenarios and it projects a long-term temperature rise of 4°C. In many respects, this is already an ambitious scenario that requires significant changes in policy and technologies compared with the 6DS. Capping the temperature increase at 4°C requires significant additional cuts in emissions in the period after 2050, yet still potentially brings forth drastic climate impacts.

The 2°C Scenario (2DS) is the main focus of ETP 2014. It describes an energy system consistent with an emissions trajectory that recent climate science research indicates would give at least a 50% chance of limiting average global temperature increase to 2°C. The 2DS also identifies changes that help ensure a secure and affordable energy system in the long run. It sets the target of cutting energy- and process-related CO2 emissions by more than half in 2050 (compared with 2011) and ensuring that they continue to fall thereafter. Importantly, the 2DS acknowledges that transforming the energy sector is vital, but not the sole solution: the goal can be achieved only provided that CO2 and GHG emissions in non-energy sectors are also reduced.