The following definitions reflect those used by the International Energy Agency (IEA); definitions used by other organisations and publications may vary.
compound average annual growth rate
corporate average fuel economy (standards in the United States)
Committee on Budget and Expenditure (of the IEA); also indicated as Budget Committee
combined-cycle gas turbine
combined cooling, heat and power
carbon capture and storage
clean coal technologies
coke dry quenching
crude distillation unit
Clean Energy Ministerial
Council on Environmental Quality (United States)
Certified Emission Reductions issued by CDM Executive Board, representing 1 tonne of CO2 equivalent
Committee on Energy Research and Technology (of the IEA)
circulating fluidised-bed combustion (boiler technology)
commercial financial institutions
compact fluorescent lamp
combined heat and power (generation)
Climate Investment Fund
coal mine methane
compressed natural gas
chemical oxygen demand
Caspian Pipeline Consortium
Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme
coal seam gas
concentrating solar heating
coal seam methane
concentrating solar power
cyclic steam stimulation
coal to chemicals
Clean Technology Fund (World Bank)
a group of technologies used to reduce CO2 emissions from large CO2 sources (such as fossil fuel or biomass power generation) and industrial processes (such as cement, iron and steel and fertilizer manufacturing). Following capture, CO2 is transported and stored in specifically selected and characterised geological formations over 1 000 metres below the ground. Aspects of the CCS chain have been used in industry for many decades; however, the complete process has been demonstrated at commercial scale at only a few locations in the world.
the full quantity of greenhouse gases that can be attributed to an individual, a plant, a company, a product or a whole economy.
the set of organised and bilateral transactions by which countries trade credits received for greenhouse-gas emission reductions. The market is used to comply with emission goals, or to voluntarily offset a country’s own emissions. The carbon market was launched by the creation of three mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol: emissions trading, across developed countries; the Clean Development Mechanism, based on projects in developing countries; and Joint Implementation, based on projects in developed countries.
the mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol by which a developing country can earn certified emission reductions (CERs) for a project that reduces emissions (e.g. carbon trading).
the change in climate (i.e. regional temperature, precipitation, extreme weather, etc.) caused by increase in the greenhouse effect. (see global warming).
The OECD and IEA jointly act as Secretariat for this ad hoc group of climate negotiators from member countries.
the simultaneous generation of both electricity and heat from the same fuel, for useful purposes. The fuel varies greatly and can include coal, biomass, natural gas, nuclear material, the sun or the heat stored in the earth.
Coal refers to a variety of solid, combustible, sedimentary, organic rocks that are composed mainly of carbon and varying amounts of other components such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur and moisture. Coal is formed from vegetation that has been consolidated between other rock strata and altered by the combined effects of pressure and heat over millions of years. Many different classifications of coal are used around the world, reflecting a broad range of ages, compositions and properties.
the transformation of coal into liquid hydrocarbons. It can be achieved through either coal gasification into syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), combined with Fischer-Tropsch or methanol-to-gasoline synthesis to produce liquid fuels, or through the less developed direct-coal liquefaction technologies in which coal is directly reacted with hydrogen.
methane found in coal seams that is a source of unconventional natural gas.
the solid product obtained from the carbonisation of coal, principally coking coal, at high temperature. Semi-coke, the solid product obtained from the carbonisation of coal at low temperatures, is also included, along with coke and semi-coke.
hard coal of a quality that allows the production of coke suitable to support a blast furnace charge.
devices that concentrate energy from the sun’s rays to heat a receiver to high temperatures. This heat is transformed first into mechanical energy (by turbines or other engines) and then into electricity. (See also Photovoltaic).
condensates are liquid hydrocarbon mixtures recovered from associated or non-associated gas reservoirs. They are composed of C5 and higher carbon number hydrocarbons and normally have an API between 50° and 85°.
Market situation in which prices in succeeding delivery months are progressively higher than in the nearest delivery month; the opposite of backwardation.
the liabilities held by a company used to fund investments.
cubic foot or ft3
cubic metre or m3