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Glossary Glossary

The following definitions reflect those used by the International Energy Agency (IEA); definitions used by other organisations and publications may vary.

CAAGR

compound average annual growth rate

CAFE

corporate average fuel economy (standards in the US)

CAPEX

capital expenditures

CBE

Committee on Budget and Expenditure (of the IEA); also indicated as Budget Committee

CBM

coalbed methane

CBTL

coal-and-biomass-to-liquids

CCGT

combined-cycle gas turbine

CCHP

combined cooling, heat and power

CCRC

Climate Change Research Centre

CCS

carbon capture and storage

CCT

clean coal technologies

CDQ

coke dry quenching

CDU

crude distillation unit

CEM

Clean Energy Ministerial

CEQ

Council on Environmental Quality (United States)

CER

Certified Emission Reductions issued by CDM Executive Board, representing 1 tonne of CO2 equivalent

CERT

Committee on Energy Research and Technology (of the IEA)

CFBC

circulating fluidised-bed combustion (boiler technology)

CFI

commercial financial institutions

CFL

compact fluorescent lamp

CH4

methane

CHP

combined heat and power (generation)

CIF

Climate Investment Fund

CLEEN

Cluster for Energy and the Environment (Finland)

CMM

coal mine methane

CNG

compressed natural gas

CO

carbon monoxide

CO2

carbon dioxide

CO2-eq

carbon-dioxide equivalent

COD

chemical oxygen demand

COG

coke-oven gas

CPC

Caspian Pipeline Consortium

CPOGT

Collaborative Platform on Oil and Gas Technologies

CPRS

Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme

CSG

coal seam gas

CSH

concentrating solar heating

CSM

coal seam methane

CSP

concentrating solar power

CSS

cyclic steam stimulation

CTC

coal to chemicals

CTF

Clean Technology Fund (World Bank)

CTG

coal-to-gas

CTL

coal-to-liquids

carbon capture and storage (CCS)

a group of technologies used to reduce CO2 emissions from large CO2 sources (such as fossil fuel or biomass power generation) and industrial processes (such as cement, iron and steel and fertilizer manufacturing). Following capture, CO2 is transported and stored in specifically selected and characterised geological formations over 1 000 m below the ground. Aspects of the CCS chain have been used in industry for many decades; however, the complete process has been demonstrated at a commercial scale at only five locations around the world.

carbon footprint

the full quantity of greenhouse gases that can be attributed to an individual, a plant, a company, a product or a whole economy.

carbon market

the set of organised and bilateral transactions by which countries trade credits received for greenhouse-gas emission reductions. The market is used to comply with emission goals, or to voluntarily offset a country’s own emissions. The carbon market was launched by the creation of three mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol: emissions trading, across developed countries; the Clean Development Mechanism, based on projects in developing countries; and Joint Implementation, based on projects in developed countries.

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

the mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol by which a developing country can earn certified emission reductions (CERs) for a project that reduces emissions (e.g. carbon trading).

climate change

the change in climate (i.e. regional temperature, precipitation, extreme weather, etc.) caused by increase in the greenhouse effect. (see global warming).

Climate Change Experts Group (CCXG)

The OECD and IEA jointly act as Secretariat for this ad hoc group of climate negotiators from member countries.

co-generation (or combined heat and power)

the simultaneous generation of both electricity and heat from the same fuel, for useful purposes. The fuel varies greatly and can include coal, biomass, natural gas, nuclear material, the sun or the heat stored in the earth.

coal

Coal refers to a variety of solid, combustible, sedimentary, organic rocks that are composed mainly of carbon and varying amounts of other components such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur and moisture. Coal is formed from vegetation that has been consolidated between other rock strata and altered by the combined effects of pressure and heat over millions of years. Many different classifications of coal are used around the world, reflecting a broad range of ages, compositions and properties.
 

coal-to-liquids

the transformation of coal into liquid hydrocarbons. It can be achieved through either coal gasification into syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), combined with Fischer-Tropsch or methanol-to-gasoline synthesis to produce liquid fuels, or through the less developed direct-coal liquefaction technologies in which coal is directly reacted with hydrogen.

coalbed methane (CBD)

methane found in coal seams that is a source of unconventional natural gas.

coke oven coke

the solid product obtained from the carbonisation of coal, principally coking coal, at high temperature. Semi-coke, the solid product obtained from the carbonisation of coal at low temperatures, is also included, along with coke and semi-coke.

coking coal

hard coal of a quality that allows the production of coke suitable to support a blast furnace charge.

concentrating solar power (CSP)

devices that concentrate energy from the sun’s rays to heat a receiver to high temperatures. This heat is transformed first into mechanical energy (by turbines or other engines) and then into electricity. (See also Photovoltaic).

condensates

condensates are liquid hydrocarbon mixtures recovered from associated or non-associated gas reservoirs. They are composed of C5 and higher carbon number hydrocarbons and normally have an API between 50° and 85°.

contango

Market situation in which prices in succeeding delivery months are progressively higher than in the nearest delivery month; the opposite of backwardation.

corporate debt

the liabilities held by a company used to fund investments.

cal

calorie

cft

cubic foot or ft3
 

cm

cubic metre or m3
 

°C

degrees Celsius