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Glossary Glossary

The following definitions reflect those used by the International Energy Agency (IEA); definitions used by other organisations and publications may vary.

AAU

assigned amount unit

 

active solar thermal

active solar thermal

ASHP

air-source heat pumps

AST

active solar thermal

BAT

best available technology

BAU

business-as-usual, implying no change in policies, no government intervention

BCC

biomass co-combustion

BEV

battery electric vehicles

BF

blast furnace

BFBC

bubbling fluidised-bed combustion (boiler type)

BIGCC

biomass-integrated gasification with combined cycle

Bio-SNG

bio-synthetic natural gas

BOF

basic oxygen furnace

BPT

best practical technology

BRIC

Brazil, Russia, India, China

BRICS

Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa

BRIICS

Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, South Africa

BTL

biomass-to-liquids

CAAGR

compound average annual growth rate

CAFE

corporate average fuel economy (standards in the US)

CAPEX

capital expenditures

CBE

Committee on Budget and Expenditure (of the IEA); also indicated as Budget Committee

CBM

coalbed methane

CBTL

coal-and-biomass-to-liquids

CCGT

combined-cycle gas turbine

CCHP

combined cooling, heat and power

CCRC

Climate Change Research Centre

CCS

carbon capture and storage

CCT

clean coal technologies

CDQ

coke dry quenching

CDU

crude distillation unit

CEM

Clean Energy Ministerial

CEQ

Council on Environmental Quality (United States)

CER

Certified Emission Reductions issued by CDM Executive Board, representing 1 tonne of CO2 equivalent

CERT

Committee on Energy Research and Technology (of the IEA)

CFBC

circulating fluidised-bed combustion (boiler technology)

CFI

commercial financial institutions

CFL

compact fluorescent lamp

CH4

methane

CHP

combined heat and power (generation)

CIF

Climate Investment Fund

CLEEN

Cluster for Energy and the Environment (Finland)

CMM

coal mine methane

CNG

compressed natural gas

CO

carbon monoxide

CO2

carbon dioxide

CO2-eq

carbon-dioxide equivalent

COD

chemical oxygen demand

COG

coke-oven gas

CPC

Caspian Pipeline Consortium

CPOGT

Collaborative Platform on Oil and Gas Technologies

CPRS

Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme

CSG

coal seam gas

CSH

concentrating solar heating

CSM

coal seam methane

CSP

concentrating solar power

CSS

cyclic steam stimulation

CTC

coal to chemicals

CTF

Clean Technology Fund (World Bank)

CTG

coal-to-gas

CTL

coal-to-liquids

DER

distributed energy resources, such as PV photo voltaic solar and wind

DFI

development finance institution

DH

district heating

DHC

district heating and cooling

DME

dimethyl ether

DRI

direct reduced iron

E&P

exploration and production

EAF

electric arc furnace

ECA

export credit agency

ECBM

enhanced coalbed methane recovery

EEA

European Economic Area

EERE

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy (United States)

EFRC

Energy Frontier Research Center (United States)

EGR

enhanced gas recovery

EGSE

Experts Group on Science for Energy, (formerly known as the Ad Hoc Group on Science and Energy Technologies)

EITs

economies in transition: Russia, Former Soviet Union (FSU) and East & Central Europe (ECE)

ENARD

electricity networks analysis, research and development

EOR

enhanced oil recovery

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

EPC

engineering, procurement and construction

ERE

Emergency Response Exercise

ERR

Emergency Response Review

ERU

emission reduction units

ES

electricity storage

ESCO

energy service company

ESMIG

European Smart Meters Industry Group

ETBE

ethyl tertiary butyl ether

ETC

energy technology collaboration

ETP

Energy Technology Perspectives(IEA publication)

ETS

emissions trading scheme

EUA

European Union allowances

EUP

Energy-using product

Eurostat

Eurostat is the statistical office of the European Union

EV

electric vehicle

ExternE

external costs of energy (research project of the European Commission)

FAME

fatty acid methyl ester

FBC

fluidised bed combustion

FCV

fuel-cell vehicles

FDI

foreign direct investment

FFV

flex-fuel vehicle

FID

final investment decision

FIT

feed-in tariff

FOB

free-on-board

FP

framework programmes for research and technology development

FPCC

Fusion Power Co-ordinating Committee (Fusion Working Party)

FSU

Former Soviet Union

FYP

five-year plan

G20

group of 20 finance ministers and central bank governors. The group is made up of all G8 members, plus Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea and Turkey. The European Union is the twentieth member.

G2V

grid-to-vehicle

G8

group of eight industrialised nations – Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, United Kingdom and the United States.

GDP

gross domestic product

GFCF

gross fixed capital formation

GHG

greenhouse gases

GHP

geothermal heat pumps

GIS

geographic information systems

GIS

Green Investment Scheme

GREET

The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model

GSHP

ground-source heat pumps

GTL

gas-to-liquids

H2

hydrogen

H20

water

HAPs

hazardous air pollutants

HC

hydrocarbons

HDI

Human Development Index

HDV

heavy-duty vehicle

HDVC

high voltage direct current

HFCV

hydrogen fuel cell vehicle

HFO

heavy fuel oil

hi NUC

high nuclear scenario (in IEA modelling and publications)

hi REN

high renewables scenario (in IEA modelling and publications)

HLW

high-level waste

HPI

Human Poverty Index

HSPF

heating seasonal performance factor

HSR

high-speed rail

HTS

high temperature superconductor

HVAC

heating, ventilation and air conditioning

HVC

high-value chemical

HVDC

high-voltage direct current line       

IA

Implementing Agreements also known as (of the IEA):

  • Advanced Fuel Cells (AFCIA)
  • Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT IA)
  • Advanced Motor Fuels (AMF IA)
  • Bioenergy (Bioenergy IA)
  • Buildings and Community Systems (ECBCS IA)
  • Clean Coal Centre (CCC IA)
  • Climate Technology Initiative (CTI IA)
  • Co-operation on Tokamak Programmes (CTP IA)
  • Demand-Side Management (DSM IA)
  • District Heating and Cooling, including the Integration of Combined Heat and Power (DHC IA)
  • Efficient Electrical End-Use Equipment (4E IA) 
  • Electricity Networks Analysis, Research & Development (ENARD IA)
  • Emissions Reduction in Combustion (Combustion IA)
  • Energy Storage (ECES IA)
  • Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE IA)
  • Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP IA)
  • Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR IA)
  • Environmental, Safety and Economic Aspects of Fusion Power (ESE Fusion Power IA)
  • Fluidized Bed Conversion (FBC IA)
  • Fusion Materials (Fusion Materials IA)
  • Geothermal (Geothermal IA)
  • Greenhouse Gas (GHG IA) 
  • Heat Pumping Technologies (Heat Pumps IA)
  • High-Temperature Superconductivity on the Electric Power Sector (HTS IA)
  • Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (HEV IA)
  • Hydrogen (Hydrogen IA)
  • Hydropower (Hydropower IA)
  • Industrial Energy-Related Technologies and Systems (IETS IA)
  • Multiphase Flow Sciences (Multiphase IA)
  • Nuclear Technology of Fusion Reactors (NTFR IA)
  • Ocean Energy Systems (OES IA)
  • Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS IA)
  • Plasma Wall Interaction in TEXTOR (Textor IA)
  • Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (RETD IA)
  • Reversed Field Pinches (RFP IA)
  • Smart Grids
  • Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC IA)
  • SolarPACES  (SolarPACES IA)
  • Spherical Tori (Spherical Tori IA)
  • Stellarator-Heliotron Concept (Stellarator/Heliotron IA)
  • Wind Energy Systems (Wind IA)

IAB

Industry Advisory Board (of the IEA)

ICE

internal combustion engine

ICRP

Initial Contingency Response Plan

ICT

information and communications technologies

ICUK

Innovation China-United Kingdom

IDR

In-Depth Reviews (IEA publications focusing on specific countries)

IEP

integrated energy policy

IGCC

integrated gasification combined cycle

ILCETP

International Low-Carbon Energy Technology Platform

IOC

international oil company

IOF

industries of the future

IPEEC

International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation

IPO

initial public offering

IPP

independent power producer

IPR

intellectual property rights

IRR

internal rates of return

ISL

in situ leaching

JI

joint implementation under Kyoto Protocol

kWe

kilowatt electrical capacity

KWES

 (booklet published by the IEA)

LCD

liquid crystal display

LCETP

Low-Carbon Energy Technology Platform

LCOE

levelised cost of energy

LCV

light commercial vehicle

LDC

least-developed country

LDV

light-duty vehicle

LED

light-emitting diode

LEDC

least economically developed country

LFR

linear Fresnel reflectors

LHV

lower heating value

LNG

liquefied natural gas

LOR

licence of right

LPG

liquefied petroleum gas

LRMC

long run marginal cost

LULUCF

land-use, land-use change and forestry

M&A

mergers and acquisitions

MCFC

molten carbonate fuel cells

MDB

multilateral development bank

MDGs

Millennium Development Goals (United Nations)

MENA

Middle East and North Africa

MEP

minimum energy performance

MEPS

minimum energy performance standard

MER

market exchange rate

MOE

molten oxide electrolysis

MoMo

mobility modelling (transport sector model developed by the IEA)

MOP

Meeting of the Parties

MOTMR

(publication of the IEA)

MSC

multiple service contract

MTBE

methyl tertiary butyl ether

MTO

methanol-to-olefin

N2O

nitrous oxide

NAMA

nationally appropriate mitigation action

NAP

national allocation plan, under the EU ETS, each government must produce a national allocation plan

NBP

national balancing point

NEA

Nuclear Energy Agency (an agency within the OECD)

NEC

National Energy Commission (China)

NEDC

New European Driving Cycle

NEEDS

New Energy Externalities Development for Sustainability (research project for the European Commission)

NEET

Network of Expertise in Energy Technology, an initiative to enhance collaboration between OECD and non-member countries (launched in May 2006)

NESO

National Emergency Strategy Organisation (from the IEA’s Emergency Policy Division)

NET

Network Unit (within the IEA Energy Technology Policy [ETP] Division)

NEWNE

Synchronous grid operation of northern, eastern, western and north-eastern grids (India)

NGCC

natural gas combined cycle

NGL

natural gas liquid

NGO

non-governmental organisation

NGOC

natural gas open-cycle

NGV

natural gas vehicle

NIMBY

not in my back yard

NOC

national oil company

NOx

nitrogen oxides

NSM

National Solar Mission (India)

NTP

National Tariff Policy (India)

NYMEX

New York Mercantile Exchange

NZEC

near-zero emissions coal project

O&M

operation and maintenance

OCGT

open-cycle gas turbine

OCM

oxidative coupling of methane

ODA

official development assistance

ODI

outward direct investment

OEM

original equipment manufacturer

OHF

open-hearth furnace

OLIS

Online Information System, an OECD/IEA system for submitting official documents for OECD and IEA committees, standing groups and working parties

OME

other major economies

OMR

Oil Market Report (IEA publication)

ORC

organic Rankine cycle

OTEC

ocean thermal energy conversion

p.p.

percentage points

PAFC

phosphoric acid fuel cells

PAR

performance appraisal report

PCC

pulverised coal combustion

PCI

pulverised coal injection

PDS

public distribution system

PE

private equity

PEFC

polymer electrolyte fuel cells

PEM

proton exchange membrane

PHEV

plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

PLDV

passenger light-duty vehicle

PM

particulate matter

PM2.5

particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less

PPI

Private Participation in Infrastructure

PPP

purchasing power parity

PSA

production-sharing agreement

PV

photovoltaic

R&D

research and development

RD&D

research, development and demonstration

RDD&D

research, development, demonstration and deployment

RE

renewable energy (renewables)

RECaBS

renewable energy costs and benefits for society

REP

rural electrification policy (India)

RES

renewable energy sources

RET(s)

renewable energy technology(ies)

ROW

rest of the world

RPK

revenue passenger kilometers

SA

sectoral agreement

SAGD

steam-assisted gravity drainage

SC

supercritical

SCO

synthetic crude oil

SNG

synthetic natural gas

SO2

sulphur dioxide

SOFC

solid oxide fuel cells

SRMC

short-run marginal cost

SUV

sport-utility vehicle

SWF

sovereign wealth funds

Synfuel

synthetic fuel

Syngas

synthetic gas

T&D

transmission and distribution (of electricity)

TAME

tertiary amyl methyl ether

TCB

Energy Training & Capacity Building Programme (of the IEA)

TFC

total final consumption

TGC

tradable green certificate

TPED

total primary energy demand

TPES

total primary energy supply

TTW

tank-to-wheel

UAE

United Arab Emirates

UCG

underground coal gasification

ULCOS

ultra-low CO2 steelmaking

UNIPEDE

International Union of Producers and Distributors of Electrical Energy

USC

ultra-supercritical

USCSC

ultra-supercritical steam cycle

UT

union territories (India)

V2G

vehicle-to-grid

varRE or VRE

variable renewable energy

VC

venture capital

VC

voluntary contribution (IEA funding mechanism)

VOC

volatile organic compound

WEO

World Energy Outlook (IEA publication)

WTI

West Texas Intermediate (crude oil category)

WTT

well-to-tank

WTW

well-to-wheel

ZET

zero-emission technologies

ZEV

zero-emission vehicle

Advanced vehicles

covers electric (which are battery powered), plug-in hybrid (which uses two sources of power – most commonly gasoline and electric) and fuel cell models (which convert hydrogen into electricity).

Annex B countries

countries with quantitative targets under the Kyoto Protocol.

Annex I countries

developed countries and countries in transition that have committed under the UNFCCC to undertake emissions reductions activities.

anthropogenic

arising from human activity; for example, anthropogenic greenhouse-gas emissions are those linked to human activity rather than natural sources.

aquifer

an underground water reservoir; if the water contains large quantities of minerals, it is a saline aquifer.

arbitrage

the practice of taking advantage of a price difference between two or more markets.

asset finance

a secured business loan in which the borrower pledges its assets as collateral.

assigned amount unit

the tradable unit under the trading mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. Each unit allows the country to emit one tonne of CO2 equivalent of any of six greenhouse gases covered by the Protocol.

backwardation

Market situation in which futures prices are progressively lower in the distant delivery months. For instance, if the gold quotation for January is $960.00 per ounce and that for June is $945.00 per ounce, the backwardation for five months against January is $15.00 per ounce. (Backwardation is the opposite of contango).

balance of payments

essentially a country’s bank statement, which shows all transactions with other countries throughout the world.

biodiesel

a diesel-equivalent, processed fuel made from the esterification (a chemical process that removes glycerine from oil) of both vegetable oils and animal fats.

biofuels

fuels derived from biomass or waste feedstocks; includes ethanol and biodiesel.

biogas

a mixture of methane and CO2 produced by bacterial degradation of organic matter and used as a fuel.

biomass

renewable energy from living (or recently living) plants and animals; e.g. wood chippings, crops and manure. Plants store energy from the sun while animals get their energy from the plants they eat.

biomass-to-liquids

a process featuring biomass gasification into syngas (using Fischer-Tropsch catalytic synthesis or a methanol-to-gasoline reaction path) followed by synthesis of liquid products (such as diesel, naphtha or gasoline). The process is similar to those used in coal-to-liquids or gas-to-liquids.

black liquor

a by-product from chemical pulping processes that consists of lignin residue combined with water and the chemicals used for extracting lignin.

bond

a formal contract to repay borrowed money with interest at fixed intervals.

brown coal

includes lignite and sub-bituminous coal where lignite is defined as non-agglomerating coal with a gross calorific value less than 4 165 kilocalories per kilogramme (kcal/kg) and sub-bituminous coal is defined as non-agglomerating coal with a gross calorific value between 4 165 kcal/kg and 5 700 kcal/kg.

Budget Committee

Committee on Budget and Expenditure (of the IEA); also indicated as CBE

bunkers

includes both international marine bunkers and international aviation bunkers (see respective category definitions).

carbon capture and storage (CCS)

a group of technologies used to reduce CO2 emissions from large CO2 sources (such as fossil fuel or biomass power generation) and industrial processes (such as cement, iron and steel and fertilizer manufacturing). Following capture, CO2 is transported and stored in specifically selected and characterised geological formations over 1 000 m below the ground. Aspects of the CCS chain have been used in industry for many decades; however, the complete process has been demonstrated at a commercial scale at only five locations around the world.

carbon footprint

the full quantity of greenhouse gases that can be attributed to an individual, a plant, a company, a product or a whole economy.

carbon market

the set of organised and bilateral transactions by which countries trade credits received for greenhouse-gas emission reductions. The market is used to comply with emission goals, or to voluntarily offset a country’s own emissions. The carbon market was launched by the creation of three mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol: emissions trading, across developed countries; the Clean Development Mechanism, based on projects in developing countries; and Joint Implementation, based on projects in developed countries.

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

the mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol by which a developing country can earn certified emission reductions (CERs) for a project that reduces emissions (e.g. carbon trading).

climate change

the change in climate (i.e. regional temperature, precipitation, extreme weather, etc.) caused by increase in the greenhouse effect. (see global warming).

Climate Change Experts Group (CCXG)

The OECD and IEA jointly act as Secretariat for this ad hoc group of climate negotiators from member countries.

co-generation (or combined heat and power)

the simultaneous generation of both electricity and heat from the same fuel, for useful purposes. The fuel varies greatly and can include coal, biomass, natural gas, nuclear material, the sun or the heat stored in the earth.

coal

Coal refers to a variety of solid, combustible, sedimentary, organic rocks that are composed mainly of carbon and varying amounts of other components such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur and moisture. Coal is formed from vegetation that has been consolidated between other rock strata and altered by the combined effects of pressure and heat over millions of years. Many different classifications of coal are used around the world, reflecting a broad range of ages, compositions and properties.
 

coal-to-liquids

the transformation of coal into liquid hydrocarbons. It can be achieved through either coal gasification into syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), combined with Fischer-Tropsch or methanol-to-gasoline synthesis to produce liquid fuels, or through the less developed direct-coal liquefaction technologies in which coal is directly reacted with hydrogen.

coalbed methane (CBD)

methane found in coal seams that is a source of unconventional natural gas.

coke oven coke

the solid product obtained from the carbonisation of coal, principally coking coal, at high temperature. Semi-coke, the solid product obtained from the carbonisation of coal at low temperatures, is also included, along with coke and semi-coke.

coking coal

hard coal of a quality that allows the production of coke suitable to support a blast furnace charge.

concentrating solar power (CSP)

devices that concentrate energy from the sun’s rays to heat a receiver to high temperatures. This heat is transformed first into mechanical energy (by turbines or other engines) and then into electricity. (See also Photovoltaic).

condensates

condensates are liquid hydrocarbon mixtures recovered from associated or non-associated gas reservoirs. They are composed of C5 and higher carbon number hydrocarbons and normally have an API between 50° and 85°.

contango

Market situation in which prices in succeeding delivery months are progressively higher than in the nearest delivery month; the opposite of backwardation.

corporate debt

the liabilities held by a company used to fund investments.

derivatives

generally used as an instrument to hedge risk, but can also be used for speculative purposes.

direct equity investment

the acquisition of equity (or shares) in a company.

dual fuel

a vehicle that has two fuel systems and can switch from one fuel to the other, such as gasoline/compressed natural gas (CNG).

dynamic targets

emission objectives that are adjusted according to a pre-agreed metric such as GDP for a country or production level for an industry.

electric vehicle (EV)

a plug-in, battery electric vehicle. It is sometimes also termed ‘battery electric vehicle’. EVs do not have an internal combustion engine.

electricity generation

the total amount of electricity generated by power only or combined heat and power plants including generation required for own use. This is also referred to as gross generation.

electricity production

the total amount of electricity generated by a power plant. It includes own-use electricity, as well as transmission and distribution losses.

emergency response exercises

main objective is to train relevant government officials and oil industry stakeholders in emergency procedures. The IEA’s work in this area began with the development of Emergency Response Exercises for its member countries in the wake of oil supply disruptions in the 1970s, which threatened the global economy.

emission quota

the portion or share of total allowable emissions assigned to a country or group of countries within a framework of maximum total emissions and mandatory allocations of resources or assessments (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change).

emission reduction units (ERU)

representing 1 tonne of CO2 equivalent, generated under the Kyoto Protocol’s Joint Implementation provisions.

Energy Development Index

a composite measure of energy use in developing countries (developed by the IEA). Inputs are commercial energy consumption per capita, share of commercial energy in total final consumption (TFC), and share of population with access to electricity.

energy efficiency

something is more energy efficient if it delivers more services for the same energy input, or the same services for less energy input. For example, when a compact florescent light (CFL) bulb uses less energy than an incandescent bulb to produce the same amount of light, the CFL is considered to be more energy efficient. For more information

energy efficiency indicators

show policy makers where energy savings can be made.

energy intensity

a measure of total primary energy use per unit of gross domestic product.

energy poverty

a lack of access to modern energy services. These services are defined as household access to electricity and clean cooking facilities (e.g. fuels and stoves that do not cause air pollution in houses).

energy security

the uninterrupted availability of energy sources at an affordable price.

energy technology roadmap

focuses on a single technology and outlines a clear and systematic path for its deployment within a set time period. The roadmapping process involves detailed analysis and assessments of aspects such as research, development and deployment of the technology, the legal, regulatory and financial issues, and consumer acceptance issues.

enhanced oil recovery (EOR)

also known as tertiary oil recovery, it follows primary recovery (oil produced by the natural pressure in the reservoir) and secondary recovery (using water injection). Various EOR technologies exist, such as steam injection, hydrocarbon injection, underground combustion and CO2 flooding.

ethanol

is produced from fermenting any biomass high in carbohydrates. Today, ethanol is made from starches and sugars, but advanced generation technologies will allow it to be made from cellulose and hemicellulose, the fibrous material that makes up the bulk of most plant matter.

exchange-traded commodity

traded on an exchange which is controlled by rules and regulations, such as the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX). A non-exchange traded commodity is traded between physical buyers and sellers outside of such an exchange.

Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis

catalytic production process for the production of synthetic fuels. Natural gas, coal and biomass feedstocks can be used.

fission

a reaction when the nucleus of an atom, having captured a neutron, splits into two or more nuclei, and in so doing, releases a significant amount of energy as well as more neutrons. These neutrons then go on to split more nuclei and a chain reaction takes place.

flex fuel

 a vehicle that has one fuel system but can mix different types of fuels, such as gasoline/ethanol, in the same tank, in any (or a wide range of) mixtures.
 

fuel cell models

convert hydrogen into electricity using a fuel cell system. Hydrogen is typically stored on-board the vehicle for conversion, so these need not be plug-in vehicles. However, it appears likely that plug-in hybrid type fuel cell vehicles – with batteries and a fuel cell system instead of an internal combustion engine – may be an optimal configuration, and thus they would be plug-in vehicles.

fusion

a process with nuclei collide and join together to form a heavier atom. When this happens a considerable amount of energy gets released. (This is what happens at the Sun’s core).

futures

tradable financial contracts.

gas

 includes natural gas (both associated and non-associated with petroleum deposits, but excluding natural gas liquids) and gas-works gas.
 

gas-to-liquids

a process featuring reaction of methane with oxygen or steam to produce syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) followed by synthesis of liquid products (such as diesel and naphtha) from the syngas using Fischer-Tropsch catalytic synthesis. The process is similar to those used in coal-to-liquids or biomass-to-liquids.

geothermal

energy available as heat emitted from within the earth’s crust, usually in the form of hot water or steam.

global warming

the observed increased of the global average temperature as a result of human and other activities, including through the increased concentration of greenhouse gases such as CO2 from energy.

Glossary

The following definitions reflect those used by the IEA; definitions used by other organisations and publications may vary.

Glossary

Acronyms and Abbreviations 

Units of Measure

 

 

green certificates

amount of electricity produced by green methods;set by regulations but can be traded.

greenhouse effect

greenhouse gases (such as water vapour, CO2, methane, etc) in the atmosphere absorb and re-emit heat being radiated from the earth, trapping warmth. 

greenhouse gases

referring to gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation (heat). Anthropogenic emissions of six greenhouse gases are covered by the Kyoto Protocol.

gross domestic product (GDP)

a country’s annual economic output.

hard coal

coal of gross calorific value greater than 5 700 kilocalories per kilogramme on an ashfree but moist basis. Hard coal can be further disaggregated into anthracite, coking coal and other bituminous coal.

heat

In IEA energy statistics, heat refers to heat produced for sale only. Most heat included in this category comes from the combustion of fuels, although some small amounts are produced from geothermal sources, electrically powered heat pumps and boilers.

heat energy

Heat is obtained from fuels combustion, nuclear reactors, geothermal reservoirs, capture of sunlight, exothermic chemical processes and heat pumps which can extract it from ambient air and liquids. It may be used for heating or cooling or converted into mechanical energy for transport vehicles or electricity generation. Commercial heat sold is reported under total final consumption with the fuel inputs allocated under power generation.

heavy petroleum products

heavy petroleum products include heavy fuel oil.

hedge funds

an investment fund opened to a limited range of investors. These funds aggressively manage a portfolio of investments that use advanced investment strategies such as leveraged, long, short and derivative positions with the goal of generating high returns.

Human Poverty Index

measures life expectancy at birth, adult literacy and & school enrolment, and per-capita GDP (adjusted for purchasing power parity [PPP]). HPI-1 is a modified HPI for developing countries that measures probability at birth of not surviving to 40, adult literacy, % of population without clean water and % of children underweight.

hydro

the energy content of the electricity produced in hydropower plants assuming 100% efficiency.

hydropower

the electrical energy derived from turbines being spun by fresh flowing water. This can be from rivers or from man-made installations, where water flows from a high-level reservoir down through a tunnel and away from a dam. For more information, click here.

industry

a sector that includes fuel used within the manufacturing and construction industries. Key industry sectors include iron and steel, chemical and petrochemical, non-metallic minerals, and pulp and paper. Use by industries for the transformation of energy into another form or for the production of fuels is excluded and reported separately under other energy sector. Consumption of fuels for the transport of goods is reported as part of the transport sector.

integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)

a technology in which a solid or liquid fuel (coal, heavy oil or biomass) is gasified, followed by use for electricity generation in a combined-cycle power plant. It is widely considered a promising electricity generation technology, due to its potential to achieve high efficiencies and low emissions.

international aviation bunkers

This category includes the deliveries of aviation fuels to aircraft for international aviation. Fuels used by airlines for their road vehicles are excluded. The domestic/international split is determined on the basis of departure and landing locations and not by the nationality of the airline. For many countries this incorrectly excludes fuels used by domestically owned carriers for their international departures.

international marine bunkers

This category covers those quantities delivered to ships of all flags that are engaged in international navigation. The international navigation may take place at sea, on inland lakes and waterways, and in coastal waters. Consumption by ships engaged in domestic navigation is excluded. The domestic/international split is determined on the basis of port of departure and port of arrival, and not by the flag or nationality of the ship. Consumption by fishing vessels and by military forces is also excluded and included in residential, services and agriculture.

light petroleum products

include liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha and gasoline.

liquefied natural gas (LNG)

natural gas that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -162°C at atmospheric pressure. In this way, the space requirements for storage and transport are reduced by a factor of over 600.

liquidity

the ability to sell assets without significant movement in the price and with minimum loss of value.

low-carbon technologies

technologies that produce low – or zero – greenhouse-gas emissions while operating. In the power sector this includes fossil-fuel plants fitted with carbon capture and storage, nuclear plants and renewable-based generation technologies.

lower heating value

the heat liberated by the complete combustion of a unit of fuel when the water produced is assumed to remain as a vapour and the heat is not recovered.

Market allocation (MARKAL) model

a generic model tailored by the input data to represent the evolution over a period of usually 40 to 50 years of a specific energy system at the national, regional, state or province, or community level. More…

market fundamentals

all factors which affect the balance between supply and demand.

markets

structures which allow buyers and sellers to exchange any type of goods, services and information.

middle distillates

include jet fuel, diesel and heating oil.

Millennium Development Goals

global commitments to eradicate extreme poverty. They were agreed to by all the world’s countries and all the world’s leading development institutions in September 2000. For more information, click here.

modern biomass

includes all biomass with the exception of traditional biomass.

modern renewables

includes all types of renewables (such as wind and solar) with the exception of traditional biomass.

Multilateral Technology Initiatives

, also known as Implementing Agreements (of the IEA):

  • Advanced Fuel Cells (AFCIA)
  • Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT IA)
  • Advanced Motor Fuels (AMF IA)
  • Bioenergy (Bioenergy IA)
  • Buildings and Community Systems (ECBCS IA)
  • Clean Coal Centre (CCC IA)
  • Climate Technology Initiative (CTI IA)
  • Co-operation on Tokamak Programmes (CTP IA)
  • Demand-Side Management (DSM IA)
  • District Heating and Cooling, including the Integration of Combined Heat and Power (DHC IA)
  • Efficient Electrical End-Use Equipment (4E IA) 
  • Electricity Networks Analysis, Research & Development (ENARD IA)
  • Emissions Reduction in Combustion (Combustion IA)
  • Energy Storage (ECES IA)
  • Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE IA)
  • Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP IA)
  • Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR IA)
  • Environmental, Safety and Economic Aspects of Fusion Power (ESE Fusion Power IA)
  • Fluidized Bed Conversion (FBC IA)
  • Fusion Materials (Fusion Materials IA)
  • Geothermal (Geothermal IA)
  • Greenhouse Gas (GHG IA) 
  • Heat Pumping Technologies (Heat Pumps IA)
  • High-Temperature Superconductivity on the Electric Power Sector (HTS IA)
  • Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (HEV IA)
  • Hydrogen (Hydrogen IA)
  • Hydropower (Hydropower IA)
  • Industrial Energy-Related Technologies and Systems (IETS IA)
  • Multiphase Flow Sciences (Multiphase IA)
  • Nuclear Technology of Fusion Reactors (NTFR IA)
  • Ocean Energy Systems (OES IA)
  • Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS IA)
  • Plasma Wall Interaction in TEXTOR (Textor IA)
  • Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (RETD IA)
  • Reversed Field Pinches (RFP IA)
  • Smart Grids
  • Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC IA)
  • SolarPACES  (SolarPACES IA)
  • Spherical Tori (Spherical Tori IA)
  • Stellarator-Heliotron Concept (Stellarator/Heliotron IA)
  • Wind Energy Systems (Wind IA)

natural decline rate

the base production decline rate of an oil or gas field without intervention to enhance production.

natural gas liquids

the liquid or liquefied hydrocarbons produced in the manufacture, purification and stabilisation of natural gas. These are those portions of natural gas which are recovered as liquids in separators, field facilities, or gas processing plants. NGLs include but are not limited to ethane, propane, butane, pentane, natural gasoline and condensates.

non-binding target

allows a country to sell allowances if its emissions are below the target, but does not oblige it to buy allowances if emissions are above.

non-energy use

fuels used for chemical feedstocks and non-energy products. Examples of non-energy products include lubricants, paraffin waxes, coal tars, and oils used as timber preservatives.

nuclear

the primary heat equivalent of the electricity produced by a nuclear plant with an average thermal efficiency of 33%.

observed decline rate

the production decline rate of an oil or gas field after all measures have been taken to maximise production. It is the aggregation of all the production increases and declines of new and mature oil or gas fields in a particular region.

oil

includes crude oil, condensates, natural gas liquids, refinery feedstocks and additives, other hydrocarbons (including emulsified oils, synthetic crude oil, mineral oils extracted from bituminous minerals such as oil shale, bituminous sand and oils from CTL and GTL) and petroleum products (refinery gas, ethane, LPG, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, jet fuels, kerosene, gas/diesel oil, heavy fuel oil, naphtha, white spirit, lubricants, bitumen, paraffin waxes and petroleum coke).

oil burden

nominal oil expenditures (demand multiplied by the crude price) divided by nominal GDP. This is a proxy of how much any given economy spends on its oil needs in a given year. Typically, the global oil burden hovers around 2% of GDP – excepting during oil price shocks, most recently in 2008, and perhaps in 2011 as well, if prices continue to rise. In other words, the oil burden is one leading indicator of potential economic trouble ahead.

on-balance sheet funding

debt and equity issued by a company which appears on the company’s balance sheet to fund investments.

options

instruments that convey the rights, but not the obligation to engage in a future transaction on an underlying security or in a future contract.

other energy sector

This term covers the use of energy by transformation industries and the energy losses in converting primary energy into a form that can be used in the final consuming sectors. It includes losses by gas works, petroleum refineries, coal and gas transformation and liquefaction. It also includes energy used in coal mines, in oil and gas extraction and in electricity and heat

other renewables

includes geothermal, solar, wind, tide/wave/ocean energy for electricity generation. The direct use of geothermal and solar heat is also included in this category.

photovoltaic (PV)

directly convert solar energy into electricity using a PV cell; this is a semiconductor device that converts solar energy into electricity. (See also ).

plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)

contain both an internal combustion engine and a motor with battery pack. In contrast, a regular hybrid vehicle does not have enough battery storage on board to be worthwhile adding a plug-in capability. PHEVs tend to have a shorter electric-driving range than EVs, but conversely have the benefit of a back-up internal combustion engine should the battery get drained.

power generation

fuel use in electricity plants, heat plants and combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Both main activity producer plants and small plants that produce fuel for their own use (autoproducers) are included.

price cap

a cap set on the price of traded emissions allowances.

private equity

money invested in companies that are not publicly traded on a stock exchange or invested as part of buyouts of publicly traded companies in order to make them private companies.

project finance

the financing of long-term infrastructure, industrial projects and public services, based upon a non-recourse or limited recourse financial structure where project debt and equity used to finance the project are paid back from the cashflow generated by the project.

purchasing power parity (PPP)

the rate of currency conversion that equalises the purchasing power of different currencies. It makes allowance for the differences in price levels and spending patterns between different countries.

quotas for CO2 emissions

the portion or share of total allowable CO2 emissions assigned to a country or group of countries within a framework of maximum total emissions.

renewable energy

energy that is derived from natural processes (e.g. sunlight and wind) that are replenished at a higher rate than they are consumed. Solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, and biomass are common sources of renewable energy.

scenarios

World Energy Outlook

- 450 Scenario: A scenario presented in the World Energy Outlook, which sets out an energy pathway consistent with the goal of limiting the global increase in temperature to 2°C by limiting concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere to around 450 parts per million of CO2.

- Current Policies Scenario: A scenario in the World Energy Outlook that assumes no changes in policies from the mid-point of the year of publication (previously called the Reference Scenario).

New Policies Scenario: A scenario in the World Energy Outlook which takes account of broad policy commitments and plans that have been announced by countries, including national pledges to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions and plans to phase out fossil-energy subsidies, even if the measures to implement these commitments have yet to be identified or announced.

- Deferred Investment Case: A scenario created in World Energy Outlook 2011 to analyse how global markets might evolve if investment in the upstream industry in Middle East and North Africa countries were to fall short of that required in the New Policies Scenario over the next few years.

- Low Nuclear Case:  A scenario created in World Energy Outlook 2011 to examine the implications for global energy balances of a much smaller role of nuclear power than that projected in any of the three scenarios presented in the WEO-2011.

 

Energy Technology Perspectives

- The 6°C Scenario (6DS) is largely an extension of current trends. By 2050, energy use almost doubles (compared with 2009) and total GHG emissions rise even more. In the absence of efforts to stabilise atmospheric concentrations of GHGs, average global temperature rise is projected to be at least 6°C in the long term. The 6DS is broadly consistent with the World Energy Outlook Current Policy Scenario through 2035.

- The 4°C Scenario (4DS) takes into account recent pledges made by countries to limit emissions and step up efforts to improve energy efficiency. It serves as the primary benchmark in ETP 2012 when comparisons are made between scenarios. Projecting a long-term temperature rise of 4°C, the 4DS is broadly consistent with the World Energy Outlook New Policies Scenario through 2035 (IEA, 2011). In many respects, this is already an ambitious scenario that requires significant changes in policy and technologies. Moreover, capping the temperature increase at 4°C requires significant additional cuts in emissions in the period after 2050.

- The 2°C Scenario (2DS) is the focus of ETP 2012. The 2DS describes an energy system consistent with an emissions trajectory that recent climate science research indicates would give an 80% chance of limiting average global temperature increase to 2°C. It sets the target of cutting energy-related CO2 emissions by more than half in 2050 (compared with 2009) and ensuring that they continue to fall thereafter. Importantly, the 2DS acknowledges that transforming the energy sector is vital, but not the sole solution: the goal can only be achieved provided that CO2 and GHG emissions in non-energy sectors are also reduced. The 2DS is broadly consistent with the World Energy Outlook 450 Scenario through 2035.

BLUE Map Scenario: This IEA scenario is target-oriented: it sets the goal of halving global energy-related CO2 emissions by 2050 (compared to 2005 levels) and examines the least-cost means of achieving that goal through the deployment of existing and new low-carbon technologies.

smart grid

an electricity network that uses digital and other advanced technologies to monitor and manage the transport of electricity from all generation sources to meet the varying electricity demands of end users. Smart grids co-ordinate the needs and capabilities of all generators, grid operators, end users and electricity market stakeholders to operate all parts of the system as efficiently as possible, minimising costs and environmental impacts while maximising system reliability, resilience and stability.

smart meters

The European Smart Meters Industry Group (ESMG) defines four minimum functionalities of a smart meter:  remote reading, two-way communication, support for advanced tariffing and payment systems and remote disablement and enablement of supply. 

spot prices

the price that is quoted for immediate settlement of a transaction.

steam coal

all other hard coal that is not classified as coking coal. Also included are recovered slurries, middlings and other low-grade coal products not further classified by type. Coal of this quality is also commonly known as thermal coal.

subsidies

any government action directed primarily at the energy sector that lowers the cost of energy production, raises the price received by energy producers or lowers the price paid by energy consumers.

syngas

a synthetic gas primarily composed of hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced by a chemical process.

synthetic fuels

any liquid fuel obtained from coal, natural gas or biomass. The best known process is the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. An intermediate step in the production of synthetic fuel is often syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced from coal which is sometimes directly used as an industrial fuel.

technology transfer

The term has two definitions. The first definition is the process of converting scientific findings from research laboratories into useful products by the private sector. The second definition is used more in economic development literature and involves cross-border transmission of technology from one country to another.

total final consumption

the sum of consumption by the different end-use sectors. TFC is broken down into energy demand in the following sectors: industry, transport, buildings (including residential and services) and other (including agriculture and non-energy use). It excludes international marine and aviation bunkers, except at world level where it is included in the transport sector.

total final consumption (TFC)

the sum of consumption by the different end-use sectors. Total final consumption is broken down into energy demand in the following sectors: industry, transport, other (includes agriculture, residential, commercial and public services) and nonenergy uses. Industry includes manufacturing, construction and mining industries. In final consumption, petrochemical feedstocks appear under industry use.

total primary energy demand (TPED)

represents domestic demand only and is broken down into power generation, other energy sector and total final consumption.

total primary energy supply (TPES)

equivalent to total primary energy demand. This represents inland demand only and, except for world energy demand, excludes international marine and aviation bunkers.

traditional biomass

the use of fuelwood, charcoal, animal dung and agricultural residues in stoves with very low efficiencies.

transactions

a condition under a contract between a buyer and seller to exchange an asset for payment.

transport

fuels and electricity used in the transport of goods or persons within the national territory irrespective of the economic sector within which the activity occurs. This includes fuel and electricity delivered to vehicles using public roads or for use in rail vehicles; fuel delivered to vessels for domestic navigation; fuel delivered to aircraft for domestic aviation; and energy consumed in the delivery of fuels through pipelines. Fuel delivered to international marine and aviation bunkers is presented only at the world level and is excluded from the transport sector at the domestic level.

unconventional gas

sources of gas trapped deep underground by impermeable rocks, such as coal, sandstone and shale. The three main types of ‘unconventional’ gas are: shale gas (found in shale deposits); coal bed methane, or CBM (extracted from coal beds) and tight gas (which is trapped underground in impermeable rock formations).  While different techniques are applied, depending on the type of gas being extracted, one common method is known as hydraulic fracturing: large volumes of water (mixed with some sand and chemicals) are injected underground to create cracks in the rock. This frees the trapped gas which can then flow into the well bore created by the drill and be collected. Another key technology is horizontal drilling which enables the exposure of significantly more surface to the well.

unconventional oil

includes oil shale, oil sands-based extra heavy oil and bitumen, derivatives such as synthetic crude products, and liquids derived from natural gas – gas-to-liquid (GTL) or coal-to-liquid (CTL).

venture capital

a form of private capital typically provided for early stage, high potential growth companies.

volatility

the day-to-day, week-to-week, month-to-month or year-to-year variation in asset ort commodity prices.

WEM

a large-scale mathematical construct designed to replicate how energy markets function and is the principal tool used to generate detailed sector-by-sector and region-by region projections for various scenarios.

b/d

barrels per day

bbl

barrel

bcm

billion cubic metres

bn

billion

boe

 barrels of oil equivalent

bt

billion tonnes

Btu

British thermal unit

cal

calorie

cft

cubic foot or ft3
 

cm

cubic metre or m3
 

decimal prefixes

101 deca (da) - 10-1 deci (d)

102 hecto (h) - 10-2 centi (c)

103 kilo (k) - 10-3 milli (m)

106 mega (M) - 10-6 micro (µ)

109 giga (G) - 10-9 nano (n)

1012 tera (T) - 10-12 pico (p)

1015 peta (P) - 10-15 femto (f)

1018 exa (E) - 10-18 atto (a)

EJ

exajoule (1 joule x 1018)

ft

foot

g

gramme

gal

gallon (US or UK)
 

gce

gramme of coal equivalent

gCO2/km

gramme of carbon dioxide per kilometre

gCO2/kWh

gramme of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour

GHa

giga-hectare (1 hectare x 109)

GJ

gigajoule (1 joule x 109)

GJ/t

gigajoule per tonne

Gt

gigatonne (1 tonne x 109)

GtCO2-eq

gigatonne of carbon-dioxide equivalent (using 100-year global warming potentials for different greenhouse gases)

GW

gigawatt (1 Watt x 109)

GWh

gigawatt-hour

GWth

gigawatt thermal (1 Watt x 109)

Ha

hectare (10 000 m2)

J

joule

K

Kelvin

kb

thousand barrels

kb/d

thousand barrels per day

kcal

kilocalorie

kg

kilogramme

kgCO2-eq

kilogramme of carbon-dioxide equivalent

kJ

kilojoule

kl

thousand litres

km

kilometre

km/h

kilometre per hour

km²

square kilometre

kt

kilotonne

kV

kilovolt

kW

kilowatt

kWh

kilowatt hour

kWth

kilowatt thermal capacity

l

litre

lb

pound

lt

long ton

m

metre

mb

million barrels

mb/d

million barrels per day

MJ

megajoule

mpg

miles per gallon

Mt

million metric tons

Mtce

Million tons of coal equivalent

Mtoe

Million tons of oil equivalent

square metre

pkm

passenger km

ppm

parts per million (volume)

st

short ton

t

tonne = metric ton = 1000kg

t/y

tonne per year

tcf

thousand cubic feet

tcm

trillion cubic metres

TJ

terajoule

tkm

tonne-kilometres

TWh

terawatt hour

USD

United States dollar

W

watt (1 joule per second)

°C

degrees Celsius