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IEA Publications published in: 2014

More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - The United States -- 2014 Review, 284 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21146-9, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
Type: Country Reviews
Subject: Energy Market Reform ; Energy Policy
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

Since the last IEA review of the United States was published in 2008, the country’s energy policy landscape has fundamentally changed. In many aspects there have been significant improvements, and the country is in a strong position to deliver a reliable, affordable and environmentally sustainable energy system.

The most obvious change has been the renaissance of oil and gas production: the growth in unconventional gas production, alongside increased output of light tight oil, is making a substantial contribution to economic activity and competitiveness. Conversely, the expansion in energy production is also raising unease on environmental and safety grounds, concerns which must be addressed appropriately.

The U.S. natural gas boom has resulted in stable wholesale electricity prices, lower greenhouse gas emissions and greater system flexibility. The electricity system, however, is in need of significant investment if the country is to meet demand growth forecasts and strengthen its resilience to climate change. Renewable energy production is growing but the durability of federal tax incentives remains a persistent uncertainty.

At policy level, a number of strategic initiatives have created a new policy framework over the past six years. Among them, the Climate Action Plan has the potential to guide the U.S. economy away from its reliance on fossil fuels and towards a more sustainable energy system.

This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing the United States and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure, sustainable and affordable energy future.
More info about this title Medium-Term Coal Market Report 2014 -- Market Analysis and Forecasts to 2019, 132 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-22188-8, paper €100, PDF €80 (2014)
Type: Studies
Subject: Climate Change ; Coal ; Energy Projections
The Medium-Term Coal Market Report 2014 provides IEA forecasts on coal markets for the coming five years as well as an in-depth analysis of recent developments in global coal demand, supply and trade. The fourth annual report shows that, while China will continue to dominate global coal markets between now and the end of the decade, India and Southeast Asia will also drive coal demand growth, although on a smaller scale.

Despite coal’s reputation as an old-fashioned, 19th-century fuel, coal markets today are very dynamic: a variety of qualities are traded, new price indexes have been created for different qualities in different regions and an increasing amount of paper trading is taking place. Meanwhile, physical flows of coal are quite sensitive to demand and price developments – not to mention policy changes throughout the world.

This report examines whether and when China’s efforts to diversify its energy mix – the so-called ABC (anything but coal) policy – will lead to peak demand for coal in the world’s biggest coal market. It also analyses how the current environment of low prices for coal will affect not just demand and investments but also the ability of coal producers to stay in business, and how new regulations in the main importing and exporting countries may affect international trade.
More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - The European Union -- 2014 Review, ISBN 978-92-64-19083-2, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

In October 2014, the European Union (EU) set ambitious climate and energy targets for 2030, confirming its global leadership on climate change. But while the targets are in place, the legal framework to implement them is yet to be developed. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union – 2014 provides recommendations on how the targets can be reached in a costeffective and integrated way, while fostering the competitiveness and energy security of the European Union. The recommendations build on the lessons learned since the first IEA in-depth review of the European Union in 2008.

Since then, EU energy policy has been driving energy market integration, cross-border trade and the implementation of energy and climate targets by 2020. The European Union is a global leader in transitioning towards a low-carbon economy: Europe’s unprecedented renewable energy boom, its action on energy efficiency and the economic downturn have all contributed to a drop in greenhouse gas emissions. However, energy security concerns have increased. Ageing nuclear and coal plants will be shut, and EU energy systems and markets must accommodate growing shares of variable renewable energy. The European Union seeks to foster access to diversified gas and oil supplies to reduce dependence on single suppliers.

Making the most of its diversity, the European Union must strengthen the internal energy market to enhance both its energy security and the competitiveness of its industry. Yet, important interconnections are missing, and, despite the opening of the wholesale market and decreasing prices, concentrated and regulated retail markets do not deliver benefits to consumers. As member states adopt different decarbonisation pathways and energy policy choices, a strong “Energy Union” is needed with effective energy market rules and policies that support the development of low-carbon technologies, within the new energy and climate policy framework for 2030.
More info about this title Energy, Climate Change and Environment -- 2014 Insights, 112 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-22073-7, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
Policies that respond to climate change and other environmental issues will increasingly impact the development of the global energy sector. The transition to low-carbon economies will need to be carefully managed, as the provision of secure, affordable energy is critical for economic growth and social development. More than ever, there is a need for a fuller understanding of the opportunities to promote synergies between energy, environmental and climate policies. Energy, Climate Change, and Environment: 2014 Insights helps address this need with in-depth analysis of selected policy questions at the energy-climate interface, including:

• How can we accelerate the transition from (i.e., "unlock") existing high-emissions infrastructure?
• What are the best ways to design cost-effective emissions trading systems that fit with national circumstances?
• What are some alternative energy-specific metrics that support near-term emissions reductions and long-term decarbonisation of the energy sector?
• And, in the special focus of this report, can curbing local air pollution help reconcile energy priorities with environmental sustainability, including greenhouse gas mitigation?

Addressing these questions will help inform decisions that can boost decarbonisation of the energy sector while taking into account security and economic objectives.

This report also features an update of key energy and emissions statistics for ten world regions that should interest energy practitioners and climate policy makers alike.
More info about this title World Energy Outlook 2014, 748 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-20804-9, paper €150, PDF €120 (2014)
Special discounts:
- 30% discount for universities and non-profit organisations
- 50% discount for clients based in low income and lower middle income countries For your special discount to be set up please click on ASK FOR A DISCOUNT and follow the procedure. Please do not place your order before receiving your confirmation e-mail.

Please note that we also offer the "corporate/institutional package" and the "global corporate/institutional package" which are the options to make the PDF version of the book available to all employees. For more information, please contact us at weo@iea.org.


The global energy landscape is evolving at a rapid pace, reshaping long-held expectations for our energy future. The 2014 edition of the World Energy Outlook will incorporate all the latest data and developments to produce a comprehensive and authoritative analysis of medium- and longer-term energy trends, with projections for the first time extended to 2040. It will complement a full set of energy projections with strategic insights into their meaning for energy security, the economy and the environment. Oil, natural gas, coal, renewables and energy efficiency will be covered, along with updates on trends in energy-related CO2 emissions, fossil-fuel and renewable energy subsidies, and universal access to modern energy services. The WEO-2014 will also provide in-depth analysis of some topical energy sector issues:

- Energy sector investment: The analysis will provide a detailed assessment of current flows and future investment needs along the entire energy value chain, examining the scale of investment required and financing options. The report will also show how barriers to investment vary according to the strength of decarbonisation policies. (WEO Special Report released 3 June)

- Africa: This continent-wide focus, paying particular attention to the energy outlook for sub-Saharan Africa, will include data and projections for the entire region as well as for its key energy-producing and consuming countries. Key elements for analysis will be the prospects for improving access to modern energy services and for developing the region’s huge resource potential in a way that contributes not only to regional and global energy balances but also to local economic and social well-being. (WEO Special Report released 13 October)

- Nuclear power: Uncertainties continue to cloud the future for nuclear – government policy, public confidence, financing in liberalised markets, competitiveness versus other sources of generation and the looming retirement of a large fleet of older plants. The study will assess the outlook for nuclear power and its implications.
More info about this title CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion -- 2014 Edition, 544 pages, ISBN Paper: 978-92-64-21709-6, PDF: 978-92-64-21711-9, paper €165, PDF €132, CD-ROM €550 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Climate Change ; Cleaner Fossil Fuels ; Environment ; Statistics
In recognition of fundamental changes in the way governments approach energy-related environmental issues, the IEA has prepared this publication on CO2 emissions from fuel combustion. This annual publication was first published in 1997 and has become an essential tool for analysts and policy makers in many international forums such as the Conference of the Parties.

The twentieth session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention (COP 20), in conjunction with the tenth meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 10), will be meeting in Lima, Peru from 1 to 12 December 2014.

The data in this book are designed to assist in understanding the evolution of the emissions of CO2 from 1971 to 2012 for more than 140 countries and regions by sector and by fuel. Emissions were calculated using IEA energy databases and the default methods and emission factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.
More info about this title Morocco 2014 -- Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries, 132 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21148-3, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

The Kingdom of Morocco is over 90% dependent on energy imports, so a major challenge is to develop indigenous resources. Topography and climate are favourable to wind, solar and additional hydropower. By 2020 Morocco aims to derive more than 40% of its electrical capacity from these sources, strengthening both energy security and sustainability. At the same time, Rabat aims to retain its attractive investment conditions for oil and gas exploration.

To reduce the burden of energy subsidies, transport fuels have progressively been brought up towards full market prices, and electricity tariffs are also being adjusted upward. Energy efficiency has been elevated to a national priority, with a range of measures on lighting, building standards, appliances and vehicles.

Morocco’s electricity grid now covers more than 98% of households. The sector is being progressively liberalised, with foreign investment in both renewables and coal-fired power stations. The energy mix is diversified further by imports of gas from Algeria and electricity from Spain.

Morocco has established new national agencies to promote energy efficiency, renewable energy, and research and development. Co-operation on climate change within the United Nations framework is widely perceived as exemplary. Persevering in this direction could help Morocco emerge as a regional leader in energy sector reform, as well as in the renewable energy technologies in which it has a natural advantage.

This review analyses the energy-policy challenges facing Morocco and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide policy makers in the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
More info about this title Maroc 2014 -- Politiques énergétiques hors des pays de l'AIE, 138 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-22355-4, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
Les IEA country reviews existent uniquement en format PDF. Nous ne proposons plus la version imprimée.

Le royaume du Maroc dépend à 90 % des importations d’énergie. Un défi majeur consiste donc à développer ses ressources locales. La topographie et le climat sont propices à l’énergie éolienne, solaire et hydroélectrique. Le Maroc entend tirer plus de 40 % de sa capacité électrique de ces sources à l’horizon 2020, renforçant ainsi la sécurité d’approvisionnement et la fiabilité. En même temps, Rabat compte maintenir ses conditions d’investissement attrayantes pour l’exploration pétrolière et gazière.

Afin de réduire le poids des subventions énergétiques, les prix des carburants ont progressivement rejoint ceux des marchés internationaux. Les tarifs de l’électricité ont également été revus à la hausse. L’efficacité énergétique a été érigée en priorité nationale, avec nombre de nouvelles mesures portant sur l’éclairage, la réglementation thermique, les équipements et les véhicules.

Le réseau électrique marocain englobe maintenant plus de 98 % des ménages. Le secteur s’est progressivement libéralisé, accueillant des investissements étrangers dans les énergies renouvelables et les centrales électriques au charbon. Le bouquet énergétique a été diversifié par les importations de gaz en provenance d’Algérie et d’électricité en provenance d’Espagne.

Le Maroc a créé de nouvelles agences nationales chargées de promouvoir l’efficacité énergétique, les énergies renouvelables, et la recherche et développement. La coopération dans le cadre de la Convention-cadre des Nations Unies sur les changements climatiques est largement perçue comme exemplaire. Persévérer dans cette direction pourrait aider le Maroc à jouer un rôle de chef de file régional dans la réforme du secteur énergétique, ainsi que dans le domaine des technologies des énergies renouvelables pour lesquelles il a un avantage naturel.

Cette étude analyse les défis énergétiques auxquels est confronté le Maroc et présente des recommandations pour améliorer les politiques en la matière. Il a pour objectif d’orienter les décideurs du pays vers un avenir énergétique sûr et durable.
More info about this title Energy Efficiency Market Report 2014 -- Market Trends and Medium-Term Prospects, 224 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21826-0, paper €100, PDF €80 (2014)
The evidence is clear: energy efficiency has played, and continues to play, a large and valuable role in the sustainable development of the global economy. The energy demand that is avoided as a result of steady improvements in the efficiency of energy-using stock such as buildings, cars and appliances is larger than the total final consumption from coal, oil or gas in IEA member countries.

The market for energy efficiency investments is very large – estimated between USD 310 billion and USD 360 billion in 2011 – and this market is producing results: total final consumption in IEA countries is estimated to be 60% lower today because of energy efficiency improvements over the last four decades. Since 2001, investments in energy efficiency in 18 IEA countries have helped to avoid over 1 700 million tonnes of oil-equivalent from being consumed.

This year’s report includes an in-depth look at energy efficiency developments in the transport sector and in finance. Huge new waves of demand for mobility are emerging in OECD non member economies, bringing with them the challenges of pollution and congestion already faced in OECD countries. Fuel-economy standards and other policies are expected to help shape the market for more energy-efficient vehicles in the years to come. In financial markets, energy efficiency is becoming an important segment in its own right, aided by a growing range of financial products. We document the growing scale and diversity of energy efficiency products and actors.

Finally, this report reviews national energy efficiency market developments in various jurisdictions around the world, including Canada, China, the European Union, India and Italy. These case studies provide snapshots of specific energy efficiency sub-markets, and insights into how these markets may evolve in the coming years.
More info about this title Capturing the Multiple Benefits of Energy Efficiency, 232 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-22072-0, paper €100, PDF €80 (2014)
The traditional focus on energy savings as the main goal of energy efficiency policy has, at times, led to an underestimation of the full value of energy efficiency in both national and global economies. Energy efficiency can bring multiple benefits, such as enhancing the sustainability of the energy system, supporting strategic objectives for economic and social development, promoting environmental goals and increasing prosperity.

The aim of this book is two-fold: to build knowledge of the multiple benefits of energy efficiency, and to demonstrate how policy makers and other stakeholders can use existing tools to measure and maximise the benefits they seek. Five key benefits areas – macroeconomic development; public budgets; health and well-being; industrial productivity; and energy delivery – are investigated in-depth, with compelling results. When the value of multiple benefits is calculated alongside traditional benefits of energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions reductions, investments in energy efficiency measures have delivered returns as high as four US dollars for every one US dollar invested. Considering multiple benefits also has important implications for unravelling one of the persistent challenges in energy efficiency – the rebound effect – revealing that it is not always negative. In fact, the rebound effect often signals a positive outcome in terms of achieving broader social and economic goals.

By identifying and quantifying a broader range of impacts of energy efficiency, the multiple benefits approach repositions energy efficiency as a mainstream tool for economic and social development, and has the potential to motivate higher uptake of energy efficiency opportunities in the market.
More info about this title Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014 -- Market Analysis and Forecasts to 2020, 260 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21821-5, paper €100, PDF €80 (2014)
In 2013, renewable power capacity expanded at its fastest pace to date. Renewable power generation continued to grow strongly, reaching almost 22% of the global mix, compared with 21% in 2012 and 18% in 2007. Globally, renewable electricity generation is now on par with that of natural gas, which remained relatively stable in 2013. Investment in new renewable power capacity topped USD 250 billion globally in 2013 and is likely to remain at high levels.

Nevertheless, policy and market risks increasingly cloud the development picture, raising concerns over how fast renewables can scale up to meet long-term deployment objectives. Just when renewables are becoming a cost-competitive option in an increasing number of cases, policy uncertainty is rising in some key OECD markets. Renewables continue to spread in emerging markets, where fast-growing power demand and diversification needs provide strong deployment drivers. Still, barriers to development remain in a number of non-OECD areas, including China. As a result, despite strong anticipated generation growth, renewable power capacity additions and investment are expected to level off through 2020. Meanwhile, biofuels for transport and renewables for heat continue to grow, though at slower rates than renewable electricity and with persistent policy challenges.

The Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014 assesses market trends for renewables in the electricity, transport and heat sectors, identifying drivers and challenges to deployment, and making projections through 2020. The report presents for the first time an investment outlook for renewable power capacity, in addition to projections for renewable electricity technologies, a global biofuels supply forecast and extended analysis of final energy use of renewables for heat.
More info about this title Electricity Information 2014 -- with 2013 data, 896 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21692-1, paper €150, PDF €120, CD-ROM €550 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Electricity ; Statistics
Electricity Information provides a comprehensive review of historical and current market trends in the OECD electricity sector, including 2013 preliminary data.
An Introduction, notes, definitions and auxiliary information are provided in Part I. Part II of the publication provides an overview of the world electricity developments in 2012, covering world electricity and heat production, input fuel mix, supply and consumption, and electricity imports and exports. A greater focus is given to the 34 OECD countries with more detailed information covering production, installed capacity, input energy mix to electricity and heat production, consumption, electricity trades, input fuel prices and end-user electricity prices.
Part III of the publication provides a corresponding statistical overview of developments in the world and OECD electricity and heat market for 2012, as well as monthly OECD production and trade electricity data for 2013.
Part IV provides, in tabular form, detailed and comprehensive statistical coverage of the power and heat industry developments for each of the OECD member countries and for OECD and IEA regional aggregates. It provides comprehensive statistical details on overall energy consumption, economic indicators, electricity and heat production by energy form and plant type, electricity imports and exports, sectoral energy and electricity consumption as well as prices for electricity and electricity input fuels for each country and regional aggregate.

Electricity Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Coal Information, Natural Gas Information, Oil Information and Renewables Information.
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The CD-ROM and on-line service contain detailed time series from 1960 to 2012.
More info about this title Coal Information 2014 -- with 2013 data, 668 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21704-1, paper €165, PDF €132, CD-ROM €550 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Coal ; Statistics
Coal Information provides a comprehensive review of historical and current market trends in the world coal sector, including 2013 preliminary data.
An Introduction, notes, definitions and auxiliary information are provided in Part I. Part II of the publication provides a review of the world coal market in 2013, while Part III provides a statistical overview of developments, which covers world coal production and coal reserves, coal demand by type, coal trade and coal prices. Part IV provides, in tabular and graphic form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of historical and current coal developments in the 34 OECD member countries, by region and individually. Part V provides for selected non-OECD countries summary statistics on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions worldwide. Complete coal balances and coal trade data for selected years are presented on 20 major non-OECD coal-producing and -consuming countries.

Coal Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Electricity Information, Natural Gas Information, Oil Information and Renewables Information.
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The CD-ROM and on-line service contain detailed time series from 1960 to 2013. End-use data are available up to 2012.
More info about this title Natural Gas Information 2014 -- with 2013 data, 660 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21706-5, paper €165, PDF €132, CD-ROM €550 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Natural Gas ; Statistics
A detailed reference work on gas supply and demand covering not only the OECD countries but also the rest of the world, this publication contains essential information on LNG and pipeline trade, gas reserves, storage capacity and prices.
The main part of the book, however, concentrates on OECD countries, showing a detailed supply and demand balance for each country and for the three OECD regions: Americas, Asia-Oceania and Europe, as well as a breakdown of gas consumption by end-user. Import and export data are reported by source and destination.

Natural Gas Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Coal Information, Electricity Information, Oil Information and Renewables Information.
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The CD-ROM and on-line service contain detailed time series from 1960 (1971 for some countries) to 2012. End-use data are available up to 2011.
More info about this title Oil Information 2014 -- with 2013 data, 746 pages, paper €165, PDF €132, CD-ROM €550 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Oil ; Statistics
A comprehensive reference book on current developments in oil supply and demand. The first part of this publication contains key data on world production, trade, prices and consumption of major oil product groups, with time series back to the early 1970s.

The second part gives a more detailed and comprehensive picture of oil supply, demand, trade, production and consumption by end-user for each OECD country individually and for the OECD regions.

Trade data are reported extensively by origin and destination.

Oil Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Coal Information, Electricity Information, Natural Gas Information and Renewables Information.
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The CD-ROM and on-line service contain detailed time series from 1960 (1971 for some countries) to 2013. End-use data are available up to 2012.
More info about this title Renewables Information 2014 -- with 2013 data, 509 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21692-1, paper €110, PDF €88, CD-ROM €400 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Renewable Energy ; Statistics
Renewables Information provides a comprehensive review of historical and current market trends in OECD countries, including 2013 preliminary data.

An Introduction, notes, definitions and auxiliary information are provided in Part I. Part II of the publication provides an overview of the development of renewables and waste in the world over the 1990 to 2012 period. A greater focus is given to OECD countries with a review of electricity generation and capacity from renewable and waste energy sources. Part III of the publication provides a corresponding statistical overview of developments in the world and OECD renewable and waste market. Part IV provides, in tabular form, a more detailed and comprehensive picture of developments for renewable and waste energy sources for 34 OECD member countries, including 2013 preliminary data. It encompasses energy indicators, generating capacity, electricity and heat production from renewable and waste sources, as well as production and consumption of renewables and waste.

Renewables Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Coal Information, Electricity Information, Natural Gas Information and Oil Information.

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The CD-ROM includes detailed annual statistics on renewables and waste energy supply and demand for OECD countries. For most OECD countries, the data series begin in 1990.
More info about this title Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries -- 2014 Edition, 764 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21302-9, paper €120, PDF €96, CD-ROM €550 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Non-OECD Countries ; Statistics
This volume contains data for 2011 and 2012 on energy supply and consumption in original units for coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste for over 100 non-OECD countries. Historical tables summarise data on production, trade, final consumption and oil demand by product. These tables also include preliminary estimates of 2013 production (and trade when available) for natural gas, primary coal and oil. The book also includes definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual country data and sources.

In the 2014 edition of Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries, the sister volume of this publication, the data are presented as comprehensive energy balances expressed in tonnes of oil equivalent.

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In general the CD-ROM and on-line service contain detailed time-series back to 1971.
The CDs can be purchased as a package: World Energy Statistics and Balances 2014
More info about this title Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries -- 2014 Edition, 554 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21708-9, paper €120, PDF €96, CD-ROM €550 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Non-OECD Countries ; Statistics
This volume contains data for 2011 and 2012 on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste presented as comprehensive energy balances. Data are expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent for over 100 non-OECD countries.

Historical tables summarise production, trade and final consumption data as well as key energy and economic indicators. These tables also include preliminary estimates of 2013 production (and trade when available) for natural gas, primary coal and oil. This book includes definitions of products and flows, explanatory notes on the individual country data and conversion factors from original units to energy units.

More detailed data in original units are published in the 2014 edition of Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries, the sister volume of this publication.


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In general the CD-ROM and on-line service contain detailed time-series back to 1971.
The CDs can be purchased as a package: World Energy Statistics and Balances 2014
More info about this title Energy Statistics of OECD Countries -- 2014 Edition, 431 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21672-3, paper €120, PDF €96, CD-ROM €550 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Statistics
This volume contains data on energy supply and consumption in original units for coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste. Complete data are available for 2011 and 2012 and supply estimates are available for the most recent year (i.e. 2013). Historical tables summarise data on production, trade and final consumption. The book also includes definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual country data.

In the 2014 edition of Energy Balances of OECD Countries, the sister volume of this publication, the data are presented as comprehensive energy balances expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent.
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The CD-ROM and on-line service contain detailed time series back to 1960 for most OECD Countries.
The CDs can be purchased as a package: World Energy Statistics and Balances 2014
More info about this title Energy Balances of OECD Countries -- 2014 Edition, 336 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21303-6, paper €120, PDF €96, CD-ROM €550 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Statistics
This volume contains data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste presented as comprehensive energy balances expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Complete data are available for 2011 and 2012 and supply estimates are available for the most recent year (i.e.2013). Historical tables summarise production, trade and final consumption data as well as key energy and economic indicators. The book also includes definitions of products and flows, explanatory notes on the individual country data and conversion factors from original units to energy units.

More detailed data in original units are published in the 2014 edition of Energy Statistics of OECD Countries, the sister volume of this publication.

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The CD-ROM and on-line service contain detailed time series back to 1960 for most OECD Countries.
The CDs can be purchased as a package: World Energy Statistics and Balances 2014
More info about this title
World Energy Statistics and Balances 2014 -- CD-ROM service, CD-ROM €1400 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Statistics
The IEA energy balances and statistics databases on CD-ROM provide annual historical energy data in four IEA/OECD data bases: energy statistics and energy balances, which contain data for most of the OECD countries for the years 1960 to 2012, with supply estimates for 2013, and energy statistics and balances for more than 100 non-OECD countries for the years 1971 to 2012. _______________________________________________
The CDs and/or hardcopies and PDFs can be purchased individually:

Energy Balances of OECD Countries 2014
Energy Statistics of OECD Countries 2014
Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries 2014
Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries 2014
More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Luxembourg -- 2014 Review, 122 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21139-1, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

Since 2008, Luxembourg’s energy policy has focused on mitigating CO2 emissions in transport and industry and on supporting renewable energies and energy efficiency towards 2020. Luxembourg’s greenhouse gas emissions have stabilised as energy-intensive industries have scaled back their activities and the government put strong energy efficiency policies in place, notably for buildings. Since 2009, the country’s research and development (R&D) policies have promoted eco-innovation and clean energy technologies. In 2012, government spending on energy R&D as a ratio of gross domestic product was the highest among IEA members. Luxembourg is creating a national platform for smart meters and electric vehicles, the first of its kind country-wide roll out.

Nonetheless, Luxembourg faces several energy challenges. Oil consumption in transport is rising because of growing road fuel sales, largely the result of tax differences to neighbouring countries. This increases Luxembourg’s emissions and its oil stockholding needs. Because the country imports all of its energy needs, energy security is a priority. Luxembourg has sought to address this through greater regional integration such as merging its gas market with Belgium and increasing its electricity interconnection with France and Belgium. Yet the benefits of regional integration of wholesale energy markets have not yet translated to retail markets. Moreover, as regional electricity trade grows and neighbouring countries introduce ambitious decarbonisation policies and capacity markets, Luxembourg will need to define its priorities for an energy strategy through 2030.

This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Luxembourg and provides recommendations for each sector. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future and the development of its 2030 energy strategy.
More info about this title Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2014 -- Market Analysis and Forecasts to 2019, 168 pages, ISBN Print 978-92-64-21171-1, PDF 978-92-64-21172-8, paper €100, PDF €80 (2014)
Type: Studies
Subject: Oil
Subscribers to the monthly Oil Market Report get free access to the PDF version of this publication. You can subscribe to the Oil Market Report through the following link: http://www.iea.org/w/omrss/default.aspx
To purchase the Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2014 separately please place your order on this page.


The non-conventional supply revolution that is transforming the North American oil patch has been widely recognised as a game changer for the oil markets and industry, but how is this transformation playing out against the backdrop of other relevant market developments?

How long can the US oil boom be expected to last, and what will it take for other countries to replicate this success story?

What is holding up OPEC supply growth, and what will OPEC production capacity look like by the end of the decade?

How will the market absorb growing condensate and natural gas liquids supplies in the United States and elsewhere?

Will the recovery in global oil demand gain momentum, or is “peak demand” around the corner?

Is oil losing its grip on transport fuels?

Is US progress towards oil independence a step forward or a step back for crude markets? What about Middle East downstream forays?

Who will be the winners and losers of global refining capacity growth, and how will it affect the way refined products are delivered to consumers?

These are just some of the questions addressed in the 2014 edition of the Medium-Term Oil Market Report (MTOMR). As the supply revolution enters a new phase, oil’s role in the global energy mix is being redefined. More than ever, getting a handle on these developments is key to ensuring that energy security is maintained or enhanced, investment is appropriately targeted and resources are optimally leveraged. That makes the MTOMR’s insights into the oil market for the next five years essential reading for energy industry and market stakeholders, policy makers and all those interested in energy and the broader economy.
More info about this title Russia 2014 -- Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries, 316 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21150-6, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
Type: Country Reviews
Subject: Non-OECD Countries
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

Russia’s energy sector plays an essential role for the Russian economy, its energy security and global hydrocarbon supplies. Russia holds among the world’s largest resources of gas, oil and coal. Its liquids production has reached historical highs, yet major additional upstream investments and technology upgrades will be needed to sustain these levels in the long term. Its gas production is also at high levels, with Gazprom being the dominant producer, and with other companies now taking significant roles. Since the last IEA review of Russia’s energy policies in 2002, the power sector has also liberalised considerably.

The Russian economy remains largely inefficient, with twice as much energy used per GDP compared with IEA member countries. Ambitious energy efficiency policies have been introduced but have not led to significant improvements so far. At the same time, the electricity and district heating infrastructure is ageing and requires rapid investments. Attracting these investments from private domestic and foreign companies will require further regulatory, tariff and fiscal changes as well as a strong focus on policy implementation. Russia’s overall energy sector would benefit considerably from a more competitive, market-oriented environment.

While a number of policies aimed at modernising the energy sector and increasing its efficiency and sustainability are being developed or implemented, further reforms are needed. In 2014, Russia is preparing a new Energy Strategy to 2035 – offering a timely look at these challenges and opportunities.

This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Russia and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more sustainable energy future.
More info about this title Medium-Term Gas Market Report 2014 -- Market Analysis and Forecasts to 2019, 212 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21153-7, paper €100, PDF €80 (2014)
Type: Studies
Subject: Natural Gas ; Statistics ; Industry ; Investment
Global natural gas demand grew just 1.2% in 2013, underperforming other fuels, because of a slow economy, supply constraints, sluggish LNG trade, and competition from coal and renewables in the power sector. Growth in non-OECD countries, which had buoyed global demand over the past decade, retreated to nearly the same pace as in OECD countries. Without the effect of colder weather in OECD countries, demand there would have actually fallen and global demand would have been unchanged.

The IEA Medium-Term Gas Market Report 2014 gives a detailed analysis of demand, supply and trade developments as well as infrastructure investments to meet the 2.2% annual growth in gas demand expected through 2019. It investigates the important changes that will transform the industry: rising regional disparities between gas-hungry regions such as China and the Middle East against weakening growth in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Europe; competition between FSU supplies and LNG from the United States and Australia, notably in Europe and Asia; the shift towards net imports in non-OECD Asia and Latin America; and uncertainty over whether Europe can ease its dependency on Russian gas. Besides enhanced coverage of gas in the power sector, this year’s report features special focuses on the potential of gas in maritime transport; the competition between oil and gas to meet fast-growing power consumption in the Middle East; the implications of Iran’s possible return to the international gas scene; and the interplay of natural gas liquids and natural gas in the United States.
More info about this title Energy Technology Perspectives 2014 -- Harnessing Electricity's Potential, 382 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-20800-1, paper €150, PDF €120 (2014)
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Starting from the premise that electricity will be an increasingly important vector in energy systems of the future, Energy Technology Perspectives 2014 (ETP 2014) takes a deep dive into actions needed to support deployment of sustainable options for generation, distribution and consumption. In addition to modelling the global outlook to 2050 under different scenarios for more than 500 technology options, ETP 2014 explores the possibility of “pushing the limits” in six key areas:

- Solar Power: Possibly the Dominant Source by 2050
- Natural Gas in Low-Carbon Electricity Systems
- Electrifying Transport: How Can E-mobility Replace Oil?
- Electricity Storage: Costs, Value and Competitiveness
- Attracting Finance for Low-Carbon Generation
- Power Generation in India

Since it was first published in 2006, ETP has evolved into a suite of publications that sets out pathways to a sustainable energy future in which optimal policy support and technology choices are driven by economics, energy security and environmental factors.

- Topic-specific books and papers explore particularly timely subjects or cross-cutting challenges.
- Tracking Clean Energy Progress provides a yearly snapshot of advances in diverse areas, while also showing the interplay among technologies.
- Supported by the ETP analysis, IEA Technology Roadmaps assess the potential for transformation across various technology areas, and outline actions and milestones for deployment.

Collectively, this series lays out the wide range of necessary and achievable steps that can be taken in the near and medium terms to set the stage for long-term energy policy objectives, clearly identifying the roles of energy sector players, policy makers and industry. Next editions will examine the role of technology innovation to meet climate goals (2015) and urban energy systems (2016).

Who will benefit from using ETP 2014? Past experience shows that ETP publications attract wide and varied audiences, including experts in the energy field (e.g. technology analysts and academics), policy makers and heads of governments, as well as business leaders and investors. This reflects the value of the series’ detailed and transparent quantitative modelling analysis and well–rounded commentary, which ultimately support high-level policy messages.


ETP 2014 purchase includes extensive downloadable data, figures and visualisations.
More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - The Netherlands -- 2014 Review, 204 pages, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

Since the last review in 2008, the Netherlands has attracted investment in oil and gas storage; coal, oil and gas import terminals; and efficient power plants. This additional capacity provides flexibility and energy security both in the Netherlands and across EU markets. The Netherlands plays an important role in Europe as a hub for global energy trade, thanks to its open market and integrated supply chains.

However, the outlook for Europe’s second-largest producer of natural gas is challenging amid declining production and uncertain prospects for unconventional gas. Developing the remaining natural gas potential, market integration, and ensuring the security of supply and resilience of energy infrastructure during the transition should be top priorities.

The Netherlands stimulates energy efficiency and innovation in energy-intensive industries along the whole supply chain, notably in the Dutch refining, petrochemical and agriculture sectors, a practice that contributes to industrial competitiveness.

Despite successful decoupling of greenhouse-gas emissions from economic growth between 1990 and 2012, however, the Netherlands remains one of the most fossil-fuel- and CO2-intensive economies among IEA member countries. In September 2013, the Netherlands reached an Energy Agreement with key stakeholders on priority actions to support sustainable economic growth through 2020. In addition to implementing the agreement, the government must set the scene for a stable policy framework up to 2030, which is also crucial for renewable energies.

The Netherlands has accelerated permit procedures for new energy infrastructure and is driving technology cost reduction with reformed renewable support. The country can benefit from further interconnections with neighbouring countries, as renewables become an integral part of wholesale and balancing electricity markets in the EU.

This review analyses the energy policy challenges currently facing the Netherlands and provides recommendations for each sector. It gives advice on implementing the Energy Agreement and how to leverage international opportunities from clean energy technologies.
More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Austria -- 2014 Review, 148 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-20960-2, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

Austria's energy policy rests on three pillars – security of supply, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. The country’s decarbonisation drive has strengthened as the economy and renewable energy use have continued to grow, while fossil fuel use has decreased. Notably, Austria has more than tripled the public funding for energy research, development and demonstration since 2007.

Greenhouse gas emissions from energy use, which peaked in 2005, still need to be reduced further, and the transport sector offers prime opportunities for this. In the context of EU negotiations on an energy and climate policy framework to 2030, Austria should develop a strategy that also integrates security of supply and internal market dimensions.

Closer cross-border integration of both electricity and natural gas markets and systems is required to build a single European market. This calls for increased co-ordination and co-operation with neighbouring countries. Austria should also encourage investment in networks, optimise demand response and integrate variable renewable energy supply in a cost-effective and market-based manner.

A well-functioning internal market can help reduce the growing concerns over energy prices and costs, both for industry and for citizens. Austria could address these concerns also by implementing more energy efficiency measures and facilitating greater retail market competition.

This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Austria and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
More info about this title The Power of Transformation -- Wind, Sun and the Economics of Flexible Power Systems, 238 pages, ISBN PRINT 978-92-64-20802-5 / WEB 978-92-64-20803-2, paper €100, PDF €80 (2014)
Wind power and solar photovoltaics (PV) are crucial to meeting future energy needs while decarbonising the power sector. Deployment of both technologies has expanded rapidly in recent years, one of the few bright spots in an otherwise bleak picture of clean energy progress. However, the inherent variability of wind power and solar PV raises unique and pressing questions. Can power systems remain reliable and cost-effective while supporting high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE)? And if so, how?

Based on a thorough review of the integration challenge, this publication
- gauges the economic significance of VRE integration impacts
- highlights the need for a system-wide approach to integrating high shares of VRE
- recommends how to achieve a cost-effective transformation of the power system.

This book summarises the results of the third phase of the Grid Integration of VRE (GIVAR) project, undertaken by the IEA over the past two years. It is rooted in a set of seven case studies, comprising 15 countries on four continents. It deepens the technical analysis of previous IEA work and lays out an analytical framework for understanding the economics of VRE integration impacts. Based on detailed modelling, the impact of high shares of VRE on total system costs is analysed. In addition, the four flexible resources which are available to facilitate VRE integration – generation, grid infrastructure, storage and demand side integration – are assessed in terms of their technical performance and cost-effectiveness.
More info about this title Energy Prices and Taxes - ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION -- Quarterly publication, 416 pages, ISBN 0256-2332 (paper) 1683-4321 (CD-ROM), paper €380, PDF €304, CD-ROM €900 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Energy Market Reform ; Statistics
Energy Prices & Taxes contains a major international compilation of energy prices of OECD countries: including crude oil and oil product spot prices, import costs by crude stream, industry prices and consumer prices. The end-user prices cover the main petroleum products, gas, coal and electricity. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country. Time series availability varies with each data series.

Please note: Due to reductions in our annual budget, the IEA no longer has adequate resources to provide complete information on energy prices and taxes and so has had to suppress certain sections of Energy Prices and Taxes as of 1 January 2012. As a result, some price series have been discontinued in this edition. The series concerned are natural gas and LNG import prices, coal import and export prices and end-use prices for all non-OECD countries. The IEA considered it necessary to reduce the coverage of our publication in order to maintain the high quality of the remaining information in Energy Prices and Taxes. We are hopeful that we may be able to restore these sections in the future if resources become available.

Single Edition: 120€


Longer series for the prices and taxes are available on the CD-ROM.
More info about this title Energy Prices and Taxes - SINGLE ISSUE -- Quarterly publication, 416 pages, ISBN 0256-2332, paper €120, PDF €96 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Energy Market Reform ; Statistics
Energy Prices & Taxes contains a major international compilation of energy prices of OECD countries: including crude oil and oil product spot prices, import costs by crude stream, industry prices and consumer prices. The end-user prices cover the main petroleum products, gas, coal and electricity. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country. Time series availability varies with each data series.

Please note: Due to reductions in our annual budget, the IEA no longer has adequate resources to provide complete information on energy prices and taxes and so has had to suppress certain sections of Energy Prices and Taxes as of 1 January 2012. As a result, some price series have been discontinued in this edition. The series concerned are natural gas and LNG import prices, coal import and export prices and end-use prices for all non-OECD countries. The IEA considered it necessary to reduce the coverage of our publication in order to maintain the high quality of the remaining information in Energy Prices and Taxes. We are hopeful that we may be able to restore these sections in the future if resources become available.

See also annual subscription
More info about this title Oil, Gas, Coal and Electricity - ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION -- Quarterly publication, 590 pages, ISBN 1025-9988, paper €380, PDF €304 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Coal ; Electricity ; Natural Gas ; Oil ; Statistics
This publication provides detailed and up-to-date quarterly statistics on oil, natural gas, coal and electricity for the OECD countries.
Oil statistics cover production, trade, refinery intake and output, stock changes and consumption for crude oil, NGL and nine selected product groups. Statistics for electricity, natural gas and coal show supply and trade. Oil and coal import and export data are reported by origin and destination. Gas imports and exports data are reported by entries and exits of physical flows. Moreover, oil and hard coal production are reported on a worldwide basis.

Single Edition: 120€
More info about this title Oil, Gas, Coal and Electricity - SINGLE ISSUE -- Quarterly publication, 590 pages, ISBN 1025-9988, paper €120, PDF €96 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Coal ; Electricity ; Natural Gas ; Oil ; Statistics
This publication provides up-to-date and detailed quarterly statistics on oil, coal, natural gas and electricity for the OECD countries. Oil statistics cover production, trade, refinery intake and output, stock changes and consumption for crude oil, NGL and nine selected oil product groups. Statistics for electricity, natural gas, hard coal and brown coal show supply and trade. Import and export data are reported by origin and destination. Moreover, oil and hard coal production are reported on a worldwide basis.


See also annual subscription